Skip to main content

Full text of "The stereoscope; its history, theory, and construction"

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at jhttp : //books . qooqle . com/ 


















[The Right of Translation is reserved.] 

//S. /-./, 




Introduction, 1 

Chap. I. — History op the Stereoscope, . . 5 

II. — On Monocular Vision, or Vision with One 

Eye, 38 

III. — On Binocular Vision, or Vision with Two 

Eyes, 47 

IV. — Description op the Ocular, Reflecting, 

and Lenticular Stereoscopes, . . 53 
V.— -On the Theory op Stbbeosoopic Vision, . 76 
VI. — On the Union op Similar Pictures in 

Binocular Vision, .... 90 

VII. — Description op different Stereoscopes, . 107 
VIII. — Method op taking Pictures for the 

Stereoscope, 131 

IX. — On the Adaptation op the Pictures to 
the Stereoscope. — Their Size, Position, 
and Illumination, . . .159 
X. — Application op the Stereoscope to Paint- 
ing, 166 

XI. — Application op the Stereoscope to Sculp- 
ture, Architecture, and Engineering, . 183 
XII. — Application op the Stereoscope to Na- 
tural History, 189 



Chap. XIII.— Application op the Stereoscope to Edu- 
cational Purposes, . . .193 
XIV. — Application op the Stereoscope to Pub- 
poses of Amusement, .... 204 
XV. — On the Production op Stereoscopic 

Pictures from a Single Picture, 200 

XVI. — On certain Fallacies of Sight in the 

Vision of Solid Bodies, .... 200 
XVII. — On certain Difficulties experienced in 

the Use of the Stereoscope, . 231 



The Stereoscope, a word derived from tr's^og, solid, and 
axomiv, to see, is an optical instrument, of modern inven- 
tion, for representing, in apparent relief and solidity, all 
natural objects and all groups or combinations of objects, 
by uniting into one image two plane representations of 
these objects or groups as seen by each eye separately. In 
its most general form the Stereoscope is a binocular instru- 
ment, that is, is applied to both eyes ; but in two of its 
forms it is monocular, or applied only to one eye, though 
the use of the other eye, without any instrumental aid, is 
necessary in the combination of the two plane pictures, or 
of one plane picture and its reflected image. The Stereo- 
scope, therefore, cannot, like the telescope and microscope, 
be used by persons who have lost the use of one eye, and 
its remarkable effects cannot be properly appreciated by 
those whose eyes are not equally good. 

When the artist represents living objects, or groups of 
them, and delineates buildings or landscapes, or when he 


copies from statues or models, lie produces apparent soli- 
dity, and difference of distance from the eye, by light and 
shade, by the diminished size of known objects as regulated 
by the principles of geometrical perspective, and by those 
variations in distinctness and colour which constitute what 
has been called aerial perspective. But when all these 
appliances have been used in the most skilful manner, and 
art has exhausted its powers, we seldom, if ever, mistake 
the plane picture for the solid which it represents. The 
two eyes scan its surface, and by their distance-giving 
power indicate to the observer that every point of the 
picture is nearly at the same distance from his eye. But 
if the observer closes one eye, and thus deprives himself 
of the power of determining differences of distance by the 
convergency of the optical axes, the relief of the picture 
is increased. When the pictures are truthful photographs, 
in which the variations of light and shade are perfectly 
represented, a very considerable degree of relief and solidity 
is thus obtained ; and when we have practised for a while 
this species of monocular vision, the drawing, whether it 
be of a statue, a living figure, or a building, will appear 
to rise in its different parts from the canvas, though only 
to a limited extent. 

In these observations we refer chiefly to ordinary draw- 
ings held in the hand, or to portraits and landscapes hung 
in rooms and galleries, where the proximity of the observer, 
and lights from various directions, reveal the surface of the 
paper or the canvas ; for in panoramic and dioramic repre- 
sentations, where the light, concealed from the observer, 
is introduced in an oblique direction, and where the dis- 
tance of the picture is such that the convergency of the 


optic axes loses much of its distance-giving power, the 
illusion is very perfect, especially when aided by correct 
geometrical and aerial perspective. But when the pano- 
rama is illuminated by light from various directions, and 
the slightest motion imparted to the canvas, its surface 
becomes distinctly visible, and the illusion instantly dis- 

The effects of stereoscopic representation are of a very 
different kind, and are produced by a very different cause. 
The singular relief which it imparts is independent of 
light and shade, and of geometrical as well as of aerial 
perspective. These important accessories, so necessary in 
the visual perception of the drawings in piano, avail no- 
thing in the evolution of their relievo, or third dimen- 
sion. They add, doubtless, to the beauty of the binocular 
pictures ; but the stereoscopic creation is due solely to the 
superposition of the two plane pictures by the optical appa- 
ratus employed, and to the distinct and instantaneous 
perception of distance by the convergency of the optic axes 
upon the similar points of the two pictures which the 
stereoscope has united. 

If we close one eye while looking at photographic 
pictures in the stereoscope, the perception of relief is still 
considerable, and approximates to the binocular represen- 
tation ; but when the pictures are mere diagrams consisting 
of white lines upon a black ground, or black lines upon a 
white ground, the relief is instantly lost by the shutting 
of the eye, and it is only with such binocular pictures 
that we see the true power of the stereoscope. 

As an amusing and useful instrument the stereoscope 
derives much of its value from photography. The most 


skilful artist would have been incapable of delineating two 
equal representations of a figure or a landscape as seen 
by two eyes, or as viewed from two different points of 
sight ; but the binocular camera, when rightly constructed, 
enables us to produce and to multiply photographically the 
pictures which we require, with all the perfection of that 
interesting art. With this instrument, indeed, even before 
the invention of the Daguerreotype and the Talbotype, we 
might have exhibited temporarily upon ground glass, or 
suspended in the air, the most perfect stereoscopic crea- 
tions, by placing a Stereoscope behind the two dissimilar 
pictures formed by the camera. 



When we look with both eyes open at a sphere, or 
any other solid object, we see it by uniting into one two 
pictures, one as seen by the right, and the other as seen by 
the left eye. If we hold up a thin book perpendicularly, 
and midway between both eyes, we see distinctly the back 
of it and both sides with the eyes open. When we shut 
the right eye we see with the left eye the back of the book 
and the left side of it, and when we shut the left eye we 
see with the right eye the back of it and the right side. 
The picture of the book, therefore, which we see with both 
eyes, consists of two dissimilar pictures united, namely, a 
picture of the back and the left side of the book as seen 
by the left eye, and a picture of the back and right side of 
the book as seen by the right eye. 

In this experiment with the book, and in all cases 
where the object is near the eye, we not only see different 
pictures of the same object, but we see different things 
with each eye. Those who wear spectacles see only the 
left-hand spectacle-glass with the left eye, on the left side 
of the face, while with the right eye they see only the 
right-hand spectacle-glass on the right side of the face, 
both glasses of the spectacles being seen united midway 


between the eyes, or above the nose, when both eyes are 
open. It is, therefore, a fact well known to every person 
of common sagacity that the pictures of bodies seen by both 
eyes are formed by the union of two dissimilar pictures 
formed by each. 

This palpable truth was known and published by ancient 
mathematicians. Euclid knew it more than two thousand 
years ago, as may be seen in the 26th, 27th, and 28th 
theorems of his Treatise on Optics. 1 In these theorems 
he shews that the part of a sphere seen by both eyes, and 
having its diameter equal to, or greater or less than the 
distance between the eyes, is equal to, and greater or less 
than a hemisphere ; and having previously shewn in the 
23d and 24th theorems how to find the part of any sphere 
that is seen by one eye at different distances, it follows, 
from constructing his figure, that each eye sees different 
portions of the sphere, and that it is seen by both eyes by 
the union of these two dissimilar pictures. 

More thm fifteen hundred years ago, the celebrated phy- 
sician Galen treated the subject of binocular vision more 
fully than Euclid. In the twelfth chapter of the tenth 
book of his work, On the use of the different parts of the 
Human Body, he has described with great minuteness the 
various phenomena which are seen when we look at bodies 
with both eyes, and alternately with the right and the left. 
He shews, by diagrams, that dissimilar pictures of a body 
are seen in each of these three modes of viewing it ; 
and, after finishing his demonstration, he adds, — 

" But if any person does not understand these demonstra- 

1 Edit of Pena, pp. 17, 18, Paris, 1577 ; or Opera, by Gregory, pp. 619, 620. 
Oxon. 1703. 


tions by means of lines, he will finally give his assent to 
them when he has made the following experiment : — 
Standing near a column, and shutting each of the eyes in 
succession ; — when the right eye is shut, some of those 
parts of the column which were previously seen by the right, 
eye on the right side of the column, will not now be s*n 
by the left eye ; and when the left eye is shut, some of 
those parts which were formerly seen by the left eye on the 
left side of the column, will not now be seen by the right 
eye. But when we, at the same time, open both eyes, 
both these will be seen, for a greater part is concealed when 
we look with either of the two eyes, than when we look 
with both at the same time." 1 

In such distinct and unambiguous terms, intelligible to 
the meanest capacity, does this illustrious writer announce 
the fundamental law of binocular vision — the grand prin- 
ciple of the Stereoscope, namely, that the picture of the 
solid column which we see with both eyes is composed of two 
dissimilar pictures, as seen by each eye separately. As the 
vision of the solid column, therefore, was obtained by the 
union of these dissimilar pictures, an instrument only was 
wanted to take such pictures, and another to combine 
them. The Binocular Photographic Camera was the one 
instrument, and the Stereoscope the other. 

The subject of binocular vision was studied by various 
optical writers who have flourished since the time of Galen. 
Baptista Porta, one of the most eminent of them, repeats, 
in his work On Refraction, the propositions of Euclid on 
the vision of a sphere with one and both eyes, and he 
cites from Galen the very passage which we have given 

1 De Usu Partium Corporis Hutnani, edit. Lugduni, 1550, p. 593. 


above on the dissimilarity of the three pictures seen by 
each eye and by both. Believing that we see only with 
one eye at a time, he denies the accuracy of Euclid's theo- 
rems, and while he admits the correctness of the observa- 
tions of Galen, he endeavours to explain them upon other 

In illustrating the views of Galen on the dissimilarity of 
the three pictures which are requisite in binocular vision, 
he employs a much more distinct diagram than that which 
is given by the Greek physician. " Let a," he says, " be the 

Fig. i. 

pupil of the right eye, b that of the left, and do the body 
to be seen. When we look at the object with both eyes we 
see dc, while with the left eye we see ef, and with the 
right eye gh. But if it is seen with one eye, it will be 
seen otherwise, for when the left eye b is shut, the body 
cd, on the left side, will be seen in hg ; but when the right 
eye is shut, the body cd will be seen in fe, whereas, when 
both eyes are opened at the same time, it will be seen in cd." 
These results are then explained by copying the passage 


from Galen, in which he supposes the observer to repeat 
these experiments when he is looking at a solid column. 

In looking at this diagram, we recognise at once not 
only the principle, but the construction of the stereoscope. 
The double stereoscopic picture or slide is represented by 
he ; the right-hand picture, or the one seen by the right ejfe, 
by hp ; the left-hand picture, or the one seen by the left 
eye, by ge ; and the picture of the solid column in full 
relief by DC, as produced midway between the other two 
dissimilar pictures, hp and ge, by their union, precisely as 
in the stereoscope. 1 

Galen, therefore, and the Neapolitan philosopher, who 
has employed a more distinct diagram, certainly knew and 
adopted the fundamental principle of the stereoscope ; and 
nothing more was required, for producing pictures in full 
relief than a simple instrument for uniting hp and ge, the 
right and left hand dissimilar pictures of the column. 

In the treatise on painting which he left behind him 
in MS., 2 Leonardo da Vinci has made a distinct reference 
to the dissimilarity of the pictures seen by each eye as the 
reason why " a painting, though conducted with the greatest 
art, and finiShed to the last perfection, both with regard 
to its contours, its lights, its shadows, and its colours, can 
never shew a rdievo equal to that of the natural objects, 
unless these be viewed at a distance and with a single 
eye," 3 which he thus demonstrates. " If an object c be 
viewed by a single eye at a, all objects in the space 
behind it — included, as it were, in a shadow ecp, cast by 

1 Joan. Baptist® Porte Neap., Be Refraction* Optica parte, lib. v. p. 132, and 
lib. vi pp. 143-5. Neap. 1593. 
9 Traitata delta Pictura, Scuttura, ed Architettura. Milan, 1584. 
* Dr. Smith's Compkat System qfOpticks, voL ii., Remarks, pp. 41 and 244. 


a candle at A — are invisible to an eye at a ; but when 
the other eye at b is opened, part of these objects become 
visible to it ; those only being hid from both eyes that 

Fig. 2. 

are included, as it were, in the double shadow cd, cast by 
two lights at a and B and terminated in D ; the angular 
space edg, beyond d, being always visible to both eyes. 
And the hidden space cd is so much the shorter as the 
object c is smaller and nearer to the eyes. Thus he ob- 
serves that the object c, seen with both eyes, becomes, as 
it were, transparent, according to the usual definition of a 
transparent thing, namely, that which hides nothing beyond 
it. But this cannot happen when an object, whose breadth 
is bigger than that of the pupil, is viewed by a single eye. 
The truth of this observation is, therefore, evident, because 
a painted figure intercepts all the space behind its apparent 
place, so as to preclude the eyes from the sight of every 
part of the imaginary ground behind it. Hence," continues 
Dr. Smith, " we have one help to distinguish the place of 
a near object more accurately with both eyes than with one, 
inasmuch as we see it more detached from other objects 


beyond it, and more of its own surface, especially if it be 

We have quoted this passage, not from its proving that 
Leonardo da Vinci was acquainted with the fact that each 
eye, a, b, sees dissimilar pictures of the sphere c, but 
because it has been referred to by Mr. Wheatstone as the 
only remark on the subject of binocular vision which he 
could find " after looking over the works of many authors 
who might be expected to have made them." We think 
it quite clear, however, that the Italian artist knew as 
well as his commentator Dr. Smith, that each eye, a and 
b, sees dissimilar parts of the sphere c. It was not his 
purpose to treat of the binocular pictures of c, but his 
figure proves their dissimilarity. 

The subject of binocular vision was successfully studied 
by Francis Aguillon or Aguilonius, 1 a learned Jesuit, who 
published his Optics in 1613. In the first book of his 
work, where he is treating of the vision of solids of all 
forms, (de genere illorum quae rot. ffrspa (fa sterea) nuncu- 
pantur,) he has some difficulty in explaining, and fails to do 
it, why the two dissimilar pictures of a solid, seen by each 
eye, do not, when united, give a confused and imperfect 
view of it. This discussion is appended to the demon- 
stration of the theorem, " that when an object is seen with 
two eyes, two optical pyramids are formed whose common 
base is the object itself, and whose vertices are in the 
eyes," 2 and is as follows : — 

" When one object is seen with two eyes, the angles at 

1 OpUeorum Libri Sex Phitosophis juxta ac Mathematicu utiles. Folio. Ant- 
Terpiee, 1613. 

* In Fio. 1, ahf is the optical pyramid seen by the eye a, and bob the optical 
pyramid seen by the eye b. 


the vertices of the optical pyramids (namely, haf, gbe, Fig. 
1) are not always equal, for beside the direct view in which 
the pyramids ought to be equal, into whatever direction 
both eyes are turned, they receive pictures of the object 
under inequal angles, the greatest of which is that which 
is terminated at the nearer eye, and the lesser that which 
regards the remoter eye. This, I think, is perfectly evi- 
dent ; but I consider it as worthy of admiration, how it 
happens that bodies seen by both eyes are not all confused 
and shapeless, though we view them by the optical axes 
fixed on the bodies themselves. For greater bodies, seen 
under greater angles, appear lesser bodies under lesser 
angles. I£ therefore, one and the same body which is in 
reality greater with one eye, is seen less on account of the 
inequality of the angles in which the pyramids are termi- 
nated, (namely, haf, gbe, 1 ) the body itself must assuredly 
be seen greater or less at the same time, and to the same 
person that views it ; and, therefore, since the images in 
each eye are dissimilar (minime sibi cangruunt) the repre- 
sentation of the object must appear confused and disturbed 
(confusa ac perturbata) to the primary sense." 

" This view of the subject," he continues, " is certainly 
consistent with reason, but, what is truly wonderful is, 
that it is not correct, for bodies are seen clearly and dis- 
tinctly with both eyes when the optic axes are converged 
upon them. The reason of this, I think, is, that the bodies 
do not appear to be single, because the apparent images, 
which are formed from each of them in separate eyes, 
exactly coalesce, (sibi miduo exacte congruurvt,) but because 

i These angles are equal in this diagram and in the vision of a sphere, but they 
are inequal in other bodies. 


the common sense imparts its aid equally to each eye, 
exerting its own power equally in the same manner as the 
eyes are converged by means of their optical axes. What- 
ever body, therefore, each eye sees with the eyes conjoined, 
the common sense makes a single notion, not composed of 
the two which belong to each eye, but belonging and 
accommodated to the imaginative faculty to which it (the 
common sense) assigns it. Though, therefore, the angles of 
the optical pyramids which proceed from the same object 
to the two eyes, viewing it obliquely, are inequal, and 
though the object appears greater to one eye and less to 
the other, yet the same difference does not pass into the 
primary sense if the vision is made only by the axes, as we 
have said, but if the axes are converged on this side or on 
the other side of the body, the image of the same body 
will be seen double, as we shall shew in Book iv., on the 
fallacies of vision, and the one image will appear greater 
and the other less on account of the inequality of the angles 
under which they are seen." 1 

Such is Aguilonius's theory of binocular vision, and of 
the union of the two dissimilar pictures in each eye by 
which a solid body is seen. It is obviously more correct 
than that of Dr. Whewell and Mr. Wheatstone. Aguilonius 
affirms it to be contrary to reason that two dissimilar pictures 
can be united into a clear and distinct picture, as they are 
actually found to be, and he is therefore driven to call in 
the aid of what does not exist, a common seme, which 
rectifies the picture. Dr. Whewell and Mr. Wheatstone 
have cut the Gordian knot by maintaining what is impos- 
sible, that in binocular and stereoscopic vision a long line 

1 Aguilonius, Opticorum, lib. ii. book xxxviii. pp. 140, 141. 


is made to coincide with a short one, and a large surface 
with a small one ; and in place of conceiving this to be 
done by a common sense overruling optical laws, as Agui- 
lonius supposes, they give to the tender and pulpy retina, 
the recipient of ocular pictures, the strange power of con- 
tracting or expanding itself in order to equalize inequal 
lines and inequal surfaces ! 

In his fourth and very interesting book, on the fallacies 
of distance, magnitude, position, and figure, Aguilonius 
resumes the subject of the vision of solid bodies. He 
repeats the theorems of Euclid and Gassendi on the vision 
of the sphere, shewing how much of it is seen by each eye, 
and by both, whatever be the size of the sphere, and the 
distance of the observer. At the end of the theorems, in 
which he demonstrates that when the diameter of the 
sphere is equal to the distance between the eyes we see 
exactly a hemisphere, he gives the annexed drawing of the 
mode in which the sphere is seen by each eye, and by both. 


Fig. 3. 

In this diagram E is the right eye and d the left, chfi the 
section of that part of the sphere bc which is seen by the 
right eye e, bhga the section of the part which is seen by 
the left eye B, and blc the half of the great circle which is 


the section of the sphere as seen by both eyes. 1 These 
three pictures of the solids are all dissimilar. The right 
eye b does not see the part blcif of the sphere ; the left eye 
does not see the part blcga, while the part seen with both 
eyes is the hemisphere blcof, the dissimilar segments bfg, 
cgf being united in its vision. 2 

After demonstrating his theorems on the vision of spheres 
with one and both eyes, 3 Aguilonius informs us, before he 
proceeds to the vision of cylinders, that it is agreed upon 
that it is not merely true with the sphere, but also with 
the cylinder, the cone, and all bodies whatever, that the 
part which is seen is comprehended by tangent rays, such 
as bb, ec for the right eye, in Fig. 3. " For," says he, 
" since these tangent lines are the outermost of all those 
which can be drawn to the proposed body from the same 
point, namely, that in which the eye is understood to be 
placed, it clearly follows that the part of the body which is 
seen must be contained by the rays touching it on all sides. 
For in this part no point can be found from which a right 
line cannot be drawn to the eye, by which the correct 
visible form is brought out." 4 

Optical writers who lived after the time of Aguilonius 
seem to have considered the subject of binocular vision as 
exhausted in his admirable work. Gassendi, 5 though he 
treats the subject very slightly, and without any figures, 
tells us that we see the left side of the nose with the left 

i It is obvious that a complete hemisphere is not seen with both eyes. 

2 Aguilonius, Opticarum, lib. iv. pp. 306, 307. 

8 In the last of these theorems Aguilonius describes and explains, we believe for 
the first time, the conversion of relief in the vision of convex and concave surfaces. 
See Prop. xciv. p. 312. 

* Id., Id., p. 313. 

* Opera, torn. ii. p. 394. Lugduni, 1658. 


eye, and the right side of it with the right eye, — two 
pictures sufficiently dissimilar. Andrew Tacquet, 1 though 
he quotes Aguilonius and Gassendi on the subject of seeing 
distances with both eyes, says nothing on the binocular 
vision of solids ; and Smith, Harris, and Porterfield, only 
touch upon the subject incidentally. In commenting on 
the passage which we have already quoted from Leonardo 
da Vinci, Dr. Smith says, " Hence we have one help to 
distinguish the place of a near object more accurately with 
both eyes than with one, inasmuch as we see it more 
detached from other objects beyond it, and more of its own 
surface, especially if it be roundish" 2 If any farther 
evidence were required that Dr. Smith was acquainted with 
the dissimilarity of the images of a solid seen by each eye, 
it will be found in his experiment with a "long ruler 
placed between the eyebrows, and extended directly forward 
with its flat sides, respecting the right hand and the left." 
" By directing the eyes to a remote object," he adds, " the 
right side of the ruler seen by the right eye will appear on 
the left hand, and the left side on the right hand, as repre- 
sented in the figure." 3 

In his Treatise on Optics, published in 1775, Mr. 
Harris, when speaking of the visible or apparent figures of 
objects, observes, that " we have other helps for distinguish- 
ing prominences of small parts besides those by which we 
distinguish distances in general, as their degrees of light 
and shade, and the prospect we have round them" And by 
the parallax, on account of the distance betwixt our eyes, 
we can distinguish besides the front part of the two sides of 

l Opera Mathmatica Optica, tribua libria exposita, p. 136. 

8 Opticks, vol. ii., Remarks, pp. 41 and 245. « Id., vol. L p. 48, Fig. 196. 


a near object not thicker tJian the said distance, and this 
gives a visible relievo to such objects, which helps greatly to 
raise or detach them from the plane in which they lie. 
Thus the nose on a face is the more remarkably raised by 
our seeing both sides of it at once." l That is, the relievo 
is produced by the combination of the two dissimilar pictures 
given by each eye. 

Without referring to a figure given by Dr. Porterfield, 
in which he actually gives drawings of an object as seen 
by each eye in binocular vision, 2 the one exhibiting the 
object as seen endwise by the right eye, and the other the 
same object as seen laterally by the left eye, we may appeal 
to the experience of every optical, or even of every ordi- 
nary observer, in support of the fact, that the dissimilarity 
of the pictures in each eye, by which we see solid objects, 
is known to those who have never read it in Galen, Porta, 
or Aguilonius. "Who has not observed the fact mentioned 
by Gassendi and Harris, that their left eye sees only the 
left side of their nose, and their right eye the right side, 
two pictures sufficiently dissimilar ? Who has not noticed, 
as well as Dr. Smith, that when they look at any thin, flat 
body, such as a thin book, they see both sides of it — the 
left eye only the left side of it, and. the right eye only th* 
right side, while the back, or the part nearest the face, is 
seen by each eye, and both the sides and the back by both 
the eyes ? What student of perspective is there — master 
or pupil, male or female — who does not know, as certainly 
as he knows his alphabet, that the picture of a chair or 
table, or anything else, drawn from one point of sight, or as 

i Treatise on Optics, p. 171 ; see also sect. 64. p. 113. 

* Treatise on the Eye. vol i. p. 412, Plate 6, Fig. 37. 



seen by one eye placed in that point, is necessarily dis- 
similar to another drawing of the same object taken from 
another point of sight, or as seen by the other eye placed 
in a point 2^ inches distant from the first ? If such a 
person is to be found, we might then admit that the dis- 
similarity of the pictures in each eye was not known to 
every student of perspective. 1 

Such was the state of our knowledge of binocular vision 
when two individuals, Mr. Wheatstone, and Mr. Elliot, now 
Teacher of Mathematics in Edinburgh, were directing their 
attention to the subject. Mr. Wheatstone communicated 
an important paper on the Physiology of Vision to the 
British Association at Newcastle in August 1838, and ex- 
hibited an instrument called a Stereoscope, by which he 
united the two dissimilar pictures of solid bodies, the 
roc aregsa, (fa sterea of Aguilonius,) and thus reproduced, as 
it were, the bodies themselves. Mr. Wheatstone's paper 
on the subject, which had been previously read at the Royal 
Society on the 21st of June, was printed in their Transac- 
tions for 1838. 2 

Mr. Elliot was led to the study of binocular vision in 
consequence of having written an Essay, so early as 1823, 
for the Class of Logic in the University of Edinburgh, " On 
the means by which we obtain our knowledge of distances 
by the Eye." Ever since that date he was familiar with 
the idea, that the relief of solid bodies seen by the eye was 

1 As Mr. Wheatstone himself describes the dissimilar pictures or drawings as 
" two different projections of the same object seen from two points of sight, the 
distance between which is equal to the interval between the eyes of the observer," 
it is inconceivable on what ground he could imagine himself to be the discoverer of 
so palpable and notorious a fact as tbat the pictures of a body seen by two eyes — 
two points of sight, must be dissimilar. 

*Phil. Trans., 1838, pp. 371-394. 


produced by the union of the dissimilar pictures of them in 
each eye, but he never imagined that this idea was his own, 
believing that it was known to every student of vision. 
Previous to or during the year 1834, he had resolved to 
construct an instrument for uniting two dissimilar pictures, 
or of constructing a stereoscope ; but he delayed doing this 
till the year 1839, when he was requested to prepare an 
original communication for the Polytechnic Society, which 
had been recently established in Liverpool. He was thus 
induced to construct the instrument which he had projected, 
and he exhibited it to his friends, Mr. Richard Adie, 
optician, and Mr. George Hamilton, lecturer on chemistry 
in Liverpool, who bear testimony to its existence at that 
date. This simple stereoscope, without lenses or mirrors, 
consisted of a wooden box 1 8 inches long, 7 broad, and 4£ 
deep, and at the bottom of it, or rather its farther end, 
was placed a slide containing two dissimilar pictures of a 
landscape as seen by each eye. Photography did not then 
exist, to enable Mr. Elliot to procure two views of the 
same scene, as seen by each eye, but he drew the trans- 
parency of a landscape with three distances. The first and 
most remote was the moon and the sky, and a stream of 
water from which the moon was reflected, the two moons 
being placed nearly at the distance of the two eyes, or 
2£ inches, and the two reflected moons at the same dis- 
tance. The second distance was marked by an old cross 
about a hundred feet off ; and the third distance by the 
withered branch of a tree, thirty feet from the observer. In 
the right-hand picture, one arm of the cross just touched 
the disc of the moon, while, in the left-hand one, it pro- 
jected over one-third of the disc. The branch of the tree 


touched the outline of a distant hill in the one picture, but 
was " a full moon's-breadth" from it on the other. When 
these dissimilar pictures were united by the eyes, a land- 
scape, certainly a very imperfect one, was seen in relief, 
composed of three distances. 

Owing, no doubt, to the difficulty of procuring good bin- 
ocular pictures, Mr. Elliot did not see that his contrivance 
would be very popular, and therefore carried it no farther. 
He had never heard of Mr. Wheatstone's stereoscope till he 
saw his paper on Vision reprinted in the Philosophical 
Magazine for March 1852, and having perused it, he was 
convinced not only that Mr. Wheatstone's theory of the 
instrument was incorrect, but that his claim to the disco- 
very of the dissimilarity of the images in each eye had no 
foundation. He was, therefore, led to communicate to the 
same journal the fact of his having himself, thirteen years 
before, constructed and used a stereoscope, which was still 
in his possession. In making this claim, Mr. Elliot had 
no intention of depriving Mr. Wheatstone of the credit 
which was justly due to him ; and as the claim has been 
publicly made, we have described the nature of it as a part 
of scientific history. 

In Mr. Wheatstone's ingenious paper of 1838, the sub- 
ject of binocular vision is treated at considerable length. 
He gives an account of the opinions of previous writers, 
referring repeatedly to the works of Aguilonius, Gassendi, 
and Baptista Porta, in the last of which the views of Galen 
are given and explained. In citing the passage which 
we have already quoted from Leonardo da Vinci, and 
inserting the figure which illustrates it, he maintains that 
Leonardo da Vinci was not aware " that the object (c in 


Fig. 2) presented a different appearance to each eye." 
" He failed" he adds, " to observe this, and no subsequent 
writer, to my knowledge, has supplied the omission. The 
projection of two obviously dissimilar pictures on the two 
retince, when a single object is viewed, while the optic axes 
converge, must therefore be regarded as a new fact in the 
theory of vision" Now, although Leonardo da Vinci does 
not state in so many words that he was aware of the dis- 
similarity of the two pictures, the fact is obvious in his 
own figure, and he was not led by his subject to state the 
fact at all. But even if the fact had not stared him in 
the face he must have known it from the Optics of Euclid 
and the writings of Galen, with which he could not fail to 
have been well acquainted. That the dissimilarity of the two 
pictures is not a new fact we have already placed beyond a 
doubt. The fact is expressed in words, and delineated in 
drawings, by Aguilonius and Baptista Porta. It was ob- 
viously known to Dr. Smith, Mr. Harris, Dr. Porterfield, 
and Mr. Elliot, before it was known to Mr. Wheatstone, 
and we cannot understand how he failed to observe it in 
works which he has so often quoted, and in which he 
professes to have searched for it. 

This remarkable property of binocular vision being thus 
clearly established by preceding writers, and admitted by 
himself as the cause of the vision of solidity or distance, 
Mr. Wheatstone, as Mr. Elliot had done before him, thought 
of an instrument for uniting the two dissimilar pictures 
optically, so as to produce the same result that is obtained 
by the convergence of the optical axes. Mr. Elliot thought 
of doing this by the eyes alone; but Mr. Wheatstone 
adopted a much better method of doing it by reflexion. 


He was thus led to construct an apparatus, to be after- 
wards described, consisting of two plane mirrors, placed at 
an angle of 90°, to which he gave the name of stereoscope, 
anticipating Mr. Elliot both in the construction and pub- 
lication of his invention, but not in the general conception 
of a stereoscope. 

After describing his apparatus, Mr. Wheatstone proceeds 
to consider (in a section entitled, " Binocular vision of 
objects of different magnitudes") " what effects will result 
from presenting similar images, differing only in magnitude, 
to analogous parts of the retina." " For this purpose," he 
says, " two squares or circles, differing obviously but not 
extravagantly in size, may be drawn on two separate pieces 
of paper, and placed in the stereoscope, so that the reflected 
image of each shall be equally distant from the eye by which 
it is regarded. It will then be seen that notwithstanding 
this difference they coalesce and occasion a single resultant 
perception." The fact of coalescence being supposed to be 
perfect, the author next seeks to determine the difference 
between the length of two lines which the eye can force 
into coalescence, or " the limits within which the single 
appearance subsists." He, therefore, unites two images of 
equal magnitude, by making one of them visually less from 
distance, and he states that, " by this experiment, the single 
appearance of two images of different size is demonstrated" 
Not satisfied with these erroneous assertions, he proceeds to 
give a sort of rule or law for ascertaining the relative size 
of the two unequal pictures which the eyes can force into 
coincidence. The inequality, he concludes, must not exceed 
the difference " between the projections of the same object 
when seen in the most oblique position of the eyes (t.&, 


both turned to the extreme right or the extreme left) ordi- 
narily employed." Now, this rule, taken in the sense in 
which it is meant, is simply a truism. It merely states 
that the difference of the pictures which the eyes can make 
to coalesce is equal to the difference of the pictures which 
the eyes do make to coalesce in their most oblique position ; 
but though a truism it is not a truth, first, because no real 
coincidence ever can take place, and, secondly, because no 
apparent coincidence is effected when the difference of the 
picture is greater than what is above stated. 

From these principles, which will afterwards be shewn 
to be erroneous, Mr. Wheatstone proceeds " to examine 
why two dissimilar pictures projected on the two retina? 
give rise to the perception of an object in relief." " I will 
not attempt," he says, " at present to give the complete 
solution of this question, which is far from being so easy 
as at first glance it may appear to be, and is, indeed, one of 
great complexity. I shall, in this case, merely consider the 
most obvious explanations which might be offered, and shew 
their insufficiency to explain the whole of the phenomena. 

" It may be supposed that we see only one point of a field 
of view distinctly at the same instant, the one, namely, to 
which the optic axes are directed, while all other points 
are seen so indistinctly that the mind does not recognise 
them to be either single or double, and that the figure is 
appreciated by successively directing the point of conver- 
gence of the optic axes successively to a sufficient number 
of its points to enable us to judge accurately of its form. 

" That there is a degree of indistinctness in those parts 
of the field of view to which the eyes are not immediately 
directed, and which increases with the distance from that 


point, cannot be doubted; and it is also true that the 
objects there obscurely seen are frequently doubled. In 
ordinary vision, it may be said, this indistinctness and 
duplicity are not attended to, because the eyes shifting 
continually from point to point, every part of the object is 
successively rendered distinct, and the perception of the 
object is not the consequence of a single glance, during 
which a small part of it only is seen distinctly, but is 
formed from a comparison of all the pictures successively 
seen, while the eyes were changing from one point of an 
object to another. 

" All this is in some degree true, but were it entirely so 
no appearance of relief should present itself when the eyes 
remain intently fixed on one point of a binocular image in 
the stereoscope. But, in performing the experiment care- 
fully, it will be found, provided the picture do not extend 
far beyond the centres of distinct vision, that the image is 
still seen single, and in relief when in this condition." 1 

In this passage the author makes a distinction between 
ordinary binocular vision, and binocular vision through the 
stereoscope, whereas in reality there is none. The theory 
of both is exactly the same. The muscles of the two eyes 
unite the two dissimilar pictures, and exhibit the solid, in 
ordinary vision ; whereas in stereoscopic vision the images 
are united by reflexion or refraction, the eyes in both cases 
obtaining the vision of different distances by rapid and 
successive convergences of the optical axes. Mr. Wheat- 
stone notices the degree of indistinctness in the parts of the 
picture to which the eyes are not immediately directed ; but 
he does not notice the " confusion and incongruity' 1 which 

1 Phil. Tram., 1838, pp. 391. 392. 


Aguilonius says ought to exist, in consequence of some 
parts of the resulting relievo being seen of one size by the 
left eye alone, — other parts of a different size by the right 
eye alone, and other parts by both eyes. This confusion, 
however, Aguilonius, as we have seen, found not to exist, 
and he ascribes it to the influence of a common sense over- 
ruling the operation of physical laws. Erroneous as this 
explanation is, it is still better than that of Mr. Wheatstone, 
which we shall now proceed to explain. 

In order to disprove the theory referred to in the pre- 
ceding extract, Mr. Wheatstone describes two experiments, 
which he says are equally decisive against it, the first of 
them only being subject to rigorous examination. With 
this view he draws " two lines about two inches long, and 
inclined towards each other, on a sheet of paper, and having 
caused them to coincide by converging the optic axes to a 
point nearer than the paper, he looks intently on the upper 
end of the resultant line without allowing the eyes to 
wander from it for a moment. The entire line mil appear 
single, and in its proper relief, &c .... The eyes," he 
continues, " sometimes become fatigued, which causes the 
line to become double at those parts to which the optic 
axes are not fixed, but in such case all appearance of relief 
vanishes. The same experiment may be tried with small 
complex figures, but the pictures should not extend too far 
beyond the centre of the retinae." 

Now these experiments, if rightly made and interpreted, 
are not decisive against the theory. It is not true that the 
entire line appears single when the axes are converged upon 
the upper end of the resultant line, and it is not true that 
the disappearance of the relief when it does disappear arises 


from the eye being fatigued. In the combination of more 
complex figures, such as two similar rectilineal figures con- 
tained by lines of unequal length, neither the inequalities 
nor the entire figure will appear single when the axes are 
converged upon any one point of it. 

In the different passages which we have quoted from Mr. 
Wheatstone's paper, and in the other parts of it which 
relate to binocular vision, he is obviously halting between 
truth and error, between theories which he partly believes, 
and ill-observed facts which he cannot reconcile with them. 
According to him, certain truths " may be supposed" to be 
true, and other truths may be " in some degree true," but 
" not entirely so ;" and thus, as he confesses, the problem 
of binocular and stereoscopic vision " is indeed one of great 
complexity," of which " he will not attempt at present to 
give the complete solution." If he had placed a proper 
reliance on the law of visible direction which he acknow- 
ledges I have established, and " with which," he says, " the 
laws of visible direction for binocular vision ought to con- 
tain nothing inconsistent," he would have seen the impos- 
sibility of the two eyes uniting two lines of inequal length ; 
and had he believed in the law of distinct vision he would 
have seen the impossibility of the two eyes obtaining single 
vision of any more than one point of an object at a time. 
These laws of vision are as rigorously true as any other 
physical laws, — as completely demonstrated as the law of 
gravity in Astronomy, or the law of the Sines in Optics ; 
and the moment we allow them to be tampered with to 
obtain an explanation of physical puzzles, we convert science 
into legerdemain, and philosophers into conjurors. 

Such was the state of our stereoscopic knowledge in 


1838, after the publication of Mr. Wheatstone's interesting 
and important paper. Previous to this I communicated to 
the British Association at Newcastle, in August 1838, a 
paper, in which I established the law of visible direction 
already mentioned, which, though it had been maintained 
by preceding writers, had been proved by the illustrious 
D'Alembert to be incompatible with observation, and the 
admitted anatomy of the human eye. At the same meet- 
ing Mr. Wheatstone exhibited his stereoscopic apparatus, 
which gave rise to an animated discussion on the theory of 
the instrument. Dr. Whewell maintained that the retina, 
in uniting, or causing to coalesce into a single resultant 
impression two lines of different lengths, had the power 
either of contracting the longest, or lengthening the shortest, 
or what might have been suggested in order to give the 
retina only half the trouble, that it contracted the long line 
as much as it expanded the short one, and thus caused them 
to combine with a less exertion of muscular power ! In 
opposition to these views, I maintained that the retina, a 
soft pulpy membrane which the smallest force tears in 
pieces, had no such power, — that a hypothesis so gratuitous 
was not required, and that the law of visible direction 
afforded the most perfect explanation of all the stereoscopic 

In consequence of this discussion, I was led to repeat 
my experiments, and to inquire whether or not the eyes in 
stereoscopic vision did actually unite the two lines of dif- 
ferent lengths, or of different apparent magnitudes. I found 
that they did not, and that no such union was required to 
convert by the stereoscope two plane pictures into the appa- 
rent whole from which they were taken as seen by each 


eye. These views were made public in the lectures on the 
Philosophy of the Semes, which I occasionally delivered in 
the College of St. Salvator and St. Leonard, St. Andrews, 
and the different stereoscopes which I had invented were 
also exhibited and explained. 

In examining Dr. Berkeley's celebrated Theory of Vision, 
I saw the vast importance of establishing the law of visible 
direction, and of proving by the aid of binocular phenomena, 
and in opposition to the opinion of the most distinguished 
metaphysicians, that we actually see a third dimension in 
space, I therefore submitted to the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh, in January 1843, a paper On the law of visible 
position in single and binocular vision, and on the repre- 
sentation of solid figures by the union of dissimilar plane 
pictures on the retina. More than twelve years have now 
elapsed since this paper was read, and neither Mr. Wheat- 
stone nor Dr. Whewell have made any attempt to defend 
the views which it refutes. 

In continuing my researches, I communicated to the 
Royal Society of Edinburgh, in April 1844, a paper On the 
knowledge of distance as given by binocular vision, in which 
I described several interesting phenomena produced by the 
union of similar pictures, such as those which form the 
patterns of carpets and paper-hangings. In carrying on 
these inquiries I found the reflecting stereoscope of little 
service, and ill fitted, not only for popular use, but for the 
application of the instrument to various useful purposes. I 
was thus led to the construction of several new stereoscopes, 
but particularly to the Lenticular Stereoscope, now in uni- 
versal use. They were constructed in St. Andrews and 
Dundee, of various materials, such as wood, tinplate, brass, 


and of all sizes, from that now generally adopted, to a 
microscopic variety which could be carried in the pocket. 
New geometrical drawings were executed for them, and 
binocular pictures taken by the sun were lithographed by 
Mr. Schenck of Edinburgh. Stereoscopes of the lenticular 
form were made by Mr. Loudon, optician, in Dundee, and 
sent to several of the nobility in London, and in other 
places, and an account of these stereoscopes, and of a bin- 
ocular camera for taking portraits, and copying statues, was 
communicated to the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, and 
published in their Transactions. 

It had never been proposed to apply the reflecting stereo- 
scope to portraiture or sculpture, or, indeed, to any useful 
purpose ; but it was very obvious, after the discovery of the 
Daguerreotype and Talbotype, that binocular drawings could 
be taken with such accuracy as to exhibit in the stereoscope 
excellent representations in relief, both of living persons, 
buildings, landscape scenery, and every variety of sculpture. 
In order to shew its application to the most interesting of 
these purposes, Dr. Adamson of St. Andrews, at my request, 
executed two binocular portraits of himself, which were gene- 
rally circulated and greatly admired. This successful appli- 
cation of the principle to portraiture was communicated to the 
public, and recommended as an art of great domestic interest. 

After endeavouring in vain to induce opticians, both in 
London and Birmingham, (where the -instrument was exhi- 
bited in 1849 to the British Association,) to construct the 
lenticular stereoscope, and photographers to execute binocu- 
lar pictures for it, I took with me to Paris, in 1850, a very 
fine instrument, made by Mr. Loudon in Dundee, with the 
binocular drawings and portraits already mentioned. I shewed 


the instrument to the Abbe Moigno, the distinguished 
author of UOptique Modeiwe, to M. Soleil and his son-in- 
law, M. Duboscq, the eminent Parisian opticians, and to 
some members of the Institute of France. These gentlemen 
saw at once the value of the instrument, not merely as one 
of amusement, but as an important auxiliary in the arts of 
portraiture and sculpture. M. Duboscq immediately began 
to make the lenticular stereoscope for sale, and executed a 
series of the most beautiful binocular Daguerreotypes of 
living individuals, statues, bouquets of flowers, and objects 
of natural history, which thousands of individuals flocked 
to examine and admire. In an interesting article in La 
Prase, 1 the Abbe Moigno gave the following account of the 
introduction of the instrument into Paris : — 

" In his last visit to Paris, Sir David Brewster intrusted 
the models of his stereoscope to M. Jules Duboscq, son-in- 
law and successor of M. Soleil, and whose intelligence, acti- 
vity, and affability will extend the reputation of the 
distinguished artists of the Eue de l'Odeon, 35. M. Jules 
Duboscq has set himself to work with indefatigable ardour. 
Without requiring to have recourse to the binocular camera, 
he has, with the ordinary Daguerreotype apparatus, pro- 
cured a great number of dissimilar pictures of statues, bas- 
reliefs, and portraits of celebrated individuals, &c. His 
stereoscopes are constructed with more elegance, and even 
with more perfection, than the original English (Scotch) 
instruments, and while he is shewing their wonderful effects 
to natural philosophers and amateurs who have flocked to 
him in crowds, there is a spontaneous and unanimous cry 
of admiration." 

i December 28, 1550. 


While the lenticular stereoscope was thus exciting much 
interest in Paris, not a single instrument had been made in 
London, and it was not till a year after its introduction into 
France that it was exhibited in England. In the fine col- 
lection of philosophical instruments which M. Duboscq con- 
tributed to the Great Exhibition of 1851, and for which he 
was honoured with a Council medal, he placed a lenticular 
stereoscope, with a beautiful set of binocular Daguerreotypes. 
This instrument attracted the particular attention of the 
Queen, and before the closing of the Crystal Palace, M. 
Duboscq executed a beautiful stereoscope, which I presented 
to Her Majesty in his name. In consequence of this public 
exhibition of the instrument, M. Duboscq received several 
orders from England, and a large number of stereoscopes 
were thus introduced into this country. The demand, how- 
ever, became so great, that opticians of all kinds devoted 
themselves to the manufacture of the instrument, and pho- 
tographers, both in Daguerreotype and Talbotype, found it 
a most lucrative branch of their profession, to take binocular 
portraits of views to be thrown into relief by the stereo- 
scope. Its application to sculpture, which I had pointed 
out, was first made in France, and an artist in Paris actually 
copied a statue from the relievo produced by the stereoscope. 

Three years after I had published a description of the 
lenticular stereoscope, and after it had been in general use 
in France and England, and the reflecting stereoscope for- 
gotten, 1 Mr. Wheatstone printed, in the Philosophical 
Transactions for 1852, a paper on Vision, in which he says 

1 " Le fait eat," says the Abbe* Moigno, " que le stereoscope par reflexion ttait 
presque complement oublii, lorsque Sir David Brewster construisit son stereoscope 
par refraction que nous allons dgcrire." — Cosmos, vol. i. p. 4, 1852. 


that he had previously used " an apparatus in which prisms 
were employed to deflect the rays of light proceeding from 
the pictures, so as to make them appear to occupy the same 
place ;" and he adds, " I have called it the refracting 
stereoscope." 1 Now, whatever Mr. Wheatstone may have 
done with prisms, and at whatever time he may have done 
it, I was the first person who published a description of 
stereoscopes both with refracting and reflecting prisms ; and 
during the three years that elapsed after he had read my 
paper, he made no claim to the suggestion of prisms till 
after the great success of the lenticular stereoscope. The 
reason why he then made the claim, and the only reason 
why we do not make him a present of the suggestion, will 
appear from the following history : — 

In the paper above referred to, Mr. Wheatstone says, — 
" I recommend, as a convenient arrangement of the refract- 
ing stereoscope for viewing Daguerreotypes of small dimen- 
sions, the instrument represented, (Fig. 4,) shortened in its 
length from 8 inches to 5, and lenses 5 inches focal distance, 
placed before and close to the prisms." 2 Although this 
refracting apparatus, which is simply a deterioration of the 
lenticular stereoscope, is recommended by Mr. Wheatstone, 
nobody either makes it or uses it. The semi-lenses or quarter- 
lenses of the lenticular stereoscope include a virtual and ab- 
solutely perfect prism, and, what is of far more consequence, 
each lens is a variable lenticular prism, so that, when the 
eye-tubes are placed at different distances, the lenses have 
different powers of displacing the pictures. They can thus 
unite pictures placed at different distances, which cannot 
be done by any combination of whole lenses and prisms. 

1 PhU. Trans., 1852, p. 6. * ma., pp. 9, 10. 


In the autumn of 1854, after all the facts about the 
stereoscope were before the public, and Mr. Wheatstone in 
full possession of all the merit of having anticipated Mr. 
Elliot in the publication of his stereoscopic apparatus, and 
of his explanation of the theory of stereoscopic relief, such 
as it was, he thought it proper to revive the controversy by 
transmitting to the Abbe* Moigno, for publication in Cosmos, 
an extract of a letter of mine dated 27th September 1838. 
This extract was published in the Cosmos of the 1 5th August 
1 854, 1 with the following illogical commentary by the editor. 

" Nous avons eu tort mille fois d'accorder a notre illustre 
ami, Sir David Brewster, l'invention du stereoscope par refrac- 
tion. M. Wheatstone, en effet, a mis entre nos mains une 
lettre datee, le croirait on, du 27 Septembre 1 838, dans lequel 
nous avons lu ces mots ecrits par l'illustre savant Ecossais : 
* I have also stated that you promised to order for me your 
stereoscope, both with reflectors and prisms. «Fai aussi dit 
(a\ Lord Rosse 2 ) que vous aviez promis de commander pour 
moi votre stereoscope, celui avec re'flecteurs et celui avec 
prismes.' Le stereoscope par refraction est done, aussi bien 
que le stereoscope par reflexion, le stereoscope de M. Wheat- 
stone, qui l'avait invente* en 1838, et le faisait construire 
a cette epoque pour Sir David Brewster lui-mgme. Ce que 
Sir David Brewster a imaginee, et e'est une idee tres ing& 
nieuse, dont M. Wheatstone ne lui disputat jamais la gloire, 
e'est de former les deux prismes du stereoscope par refraction 
avec les deux moiti& d'une m£me lentille." 

That the reader may form a correct idea of the conduct 
of Mr. Wheatstone in making this claim indirectly, and in 

i Vol. v. livre viii. p. 241. 
' Mr. Andrew Ross, the celebrated optician ! 


a foreign journal, whose editor he has willingly misled, I 
must remind him that I first saw the reflecting stereoscope 
at the meeting of the British Association at Newcastle, in 
the middle of August 1838. It is proved by my letter 
that he and I then conversed on the subject of prisms, which 
at that time he had never thought of. I suggested prisms 
for displacing the pictures, and Mr. Wheatstone's natural 
reply was, that they must be achromatic prisms. This fact, 
if denied, may be proved by various circumstances. His 
paper of 1838 contains no reference to prisms. If he had 
suggested the use of prisms in August 1838, he would 
have inserted his suggestion in that paper, which was then 
unpublished ; and if he had only once tried a prism stereo- 
scope, he never would have used another. On my return 
to Scotland, I ordered from Mr. Andrew Ross one of the 
reflecting stereoscopes, and one made with achromatic prisms ; 
but my words do not imply that Mr. Wheatstone was the first 
person who suggested prisms, and still less that he ever made 
or used a stereoscope with prisms. But however this may be, 
it is a most extraordinary statement, which he allows the 
Abbe* Moigno to make, and which, though made a year and 
a half ago, he has not enabled the Abbe* to correct, that a 
stereoscope with prisms was made for me (or for any other 
person) by Mr. Ross. I never saw such an instrument, or 
heard of its being constructed : I supposed that after 
our conversation Mr. Wheatstone might have tried achro- 
matic prisms, and in 1848, when I described my single 
prism stereoscope, I stated what I now find is not cor- 
rect, that / believed Mr. Wheatstone had used two achro- 
matic prisms. The following letter from Mr. Andrew 
Boss will prove the main fact that he never constructed 


for me, or for Mr. Wheatstone, any refracting stereo- 
scope : — 

44 2, Feathebstohi Buildings, 
28*/* September 1854. 
"Dear Sir, — In reply to yours of the 11th instant, I 
beg to state that I never supplied you with a stereoscope in 
which prisms were employed in place of plane mirrors. I 
have a perfect recollection of being called upon either by 
yourself or Professor Wheatstone, some fourteen years since, 
to make achromatized prisms for the above instrument. 1 
also recollect that I did not proceed to manufacture them 
in consequence of the great bulk of an achromatized prism, 
with reference to their power of deviating a ray of light, 
and at that period glass sufficiently free from striae could 
not readily be obtained, and was consequently very high- 
priced. — I remain, &c. &c 

" Andrew Boss. 
44 To Sir David Brewster." 

Upon the receipt of this letter I transmitted a copy of it 
to the Abbe' Moigno, to shew him how he had been misled 
into the statement, "that Mr. Wheatstone had caused a 
stereoscope with prisms to be constructed for me ;" but 
neither he nor Mr. Wheatstone have felt it their duty to 
withdraw that erroneous statement 

In reference to the comments of the Abbe Moigno, it is 
necessary to state, that when he wrote them he had in his 
possession my printed description of the single prism, and 
other stereoscopes, 1 in which I mention my belief, now 

l The Abbe" gate an abstract of this paper in the French journal La Prase, 
December 28, 1850. 


proved to be erroneous, that Mr. Wheatstone had used 
achromatic prisms, so that he had, on my express authority, 
the information which surprised him in my letter. The 
Abbe* also must bear the responsibility of a glaring misin- 
terpretation of my letter of 1838. In that letter I say 
that Mr. Wheatstone promised to order certain things from 
Mr. Ross, and the Abbe* declares, contrary to the express 
terms of the letter, as well as to fact, that these things 
were actually constructed for me. The letter, on the 
contrary, does not even state that Mr. Wheatstone complied 
with my request, and it does not even appear from it that 
the reflecting stereoscope was made for me by Mr. Boss. 

Such is a brief history of the lenticular stereoscope, of its 
introduction into Paris and London, and of its application 
to portraiture and sculpture. It is now in general use over 
the whole world, and it has been estimated that upwards 
of half a million of these instruments have been sold. A 
Stereoscope Company has been established in London 2 for 
the manufacture and sale of the lenticular stereoscope, and 
for the production of binocular pictures for educational and 
other purposes. Photographers are now employed in every 
part of the globe in taking binocular pictures for the instru- 
ment, — among the ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum — 
on the glaciers and in the valleys of Switzerland — among 
the public monuments in the Old and the New World — 
amid the shipping of our commercial harbours — in the mu- 
seums of ancient and modern life — in- the sacred precincts 

1 No. 54, Cheapside, and 313, Oxford Street The prize of twenty guineas which 
they offered for the best short popular treatise on the Stereoscope, has been ad- 
judged to Mr. Lonie, Teacher of Mathematics in the Madras Institution, St. Andrews. 
The second prise was given to the Rev. R. Graham, Abernyte, Perthshire. 


of the domestic circle — and among those scenes of the 
picturesque and the sublime which are so affectionately asso- 
ciated with the recollection of our early days, and amid 
which, even at the close of life, we renew, with loftier sen- 
timents and nobler aspirations, the youth of our being, 
which, in the worlds of the future, is to be the commence- 
ment of a longer and a happier existence. 




In order to understand the theory and construction of 
the stereoscope we must be acquainted with the general 
structure of the eye, with the mode in which the images 
of visible objects are formed within it, and with the laws 
of vision by means of which we see those objects in the 
position which they occupy, that is, in the direction and 
at the distance at which they exist. 

Every visible object radiates, or throws out in all direc- 
tions, particles or rays of light, by means of which we see 
them either directly by the images formed in the eye, or 
indirectly by looking at images of them formed by their 
passing through a small hole, or through a lens placed in 
a dark room or camera, at the end of which is a piece of 
paper or ground glass to receive the image. 

In order to understand this let h be a very small pin- 
hole in a shutter or camera, mn, and let rtb be any 
object of different colours, the upper part, r, being red, the 
middle, y, yellow, and the lower part, b, blue. If a sheet 
of white paper, br, is placed behind the hole H, at the 
same distance as the object rb is before it, an image, br, 
will be formed of the same ray and the same colours as 
the object rb. As the particles or rays of light move in 

CHAP. n. 



straight lines, a red ray from the middle part of b will 
pass through the hole H and illuminate the point r with 
red light In like manner, rays from the middle points of 

Fig. 4. 

y and B will pass through h and illuminate with yellow 
and blue light the points y and b. Every other point of 
the coloured spaces, R, t, and b, will, in the same manner, 
paint itself, as it were, on the paper, and produce a 
coloured image, byr, exactly the same in form and colour 
as the object bvb. If the hole h is sufficiently small no 
ray from any one point of the object will interfere with or 
mix with any other ray that falls upon the paper. If the 
paper is held at half the distance, at by for example, a 
coloured image, 6'yY, of half the size, will be formed, and 
if we hold it at twice the distance, at b "r" for example, a 
coloured image, b"y[ V", of twice the size, will be painted on 
the paper. 

As the hole h is supposed to be so small as to receive 
only one ray from every point of the object, the images of the 
object, viz., br> 6V, b"r", will be very faint. By widening 


the hole h, so as to admit more rays from each luminous 
point of rb, the images would become brighter, but they 
would become at the same time indistinct, as the rays 
from one point of the object would mix with those from 
adjacent points, and at the boundaries of the colours r, Y, 
and b, the one colour would obliterate the other. In order, 
therefore, to obtain sufficiently bright images of visible 
objects we must use lenses, which have the property of 
forming distinct images behind them, at a point called 
their focus. If we widen the hole H, and place in it a 
lens whose focus is at y, for an object at the same dis- 
tance, hy, it will form a bright and distinct image, br, 
of the same size as the object rb. If we remove the 
lens, and place another in h, whose focus is at tf, for 
a distance hy, an image, b'r 1 , half of the size of rb, will 
be formed at that point ; and if we substitute for this 
lens another, whose focus is at y", a distinct image, b"r ", 
twice the size of the object, will be formed, the size of the 
image being always to that of the object as their respective 
distances from the hole or lens at h. 

With the aid of these results, which any person may 
confirm by making the experiments, we shall easily under- 
stand how we see external objects by means of the images 
formed in the eye. The human eye, a section and a front 
view of which is shewn in Fig. 5, a, is almost a sphere. 
Its outer membrane, abode, orMNO, Fig. 5, b, consists 
of a tough substance, and is called the sclerotic coat, which 
forms the white of the eye, a, seen in the front view. The 
front part of the eyeball, gxt>, which resembles a small 
watch-glass, is perfectly transparent, and is called the cornea. 
Behind it is the iris, ca 6 e, or c in the front view, which is 

chap. n. 



a circular disc, with a hole, a 6, in its centre, called the pupil, 
or black of the eye. It is, as it were, the window of the eye, 
through which all the light from visible objects must pass. 

Fig. 5, A. 

The iris has different colours in different persons, black, bine, 
ox grey; and the pupil, a 6, or h, has the power of contracting 
or enlarging its size according as the light which enters it is 
more or less bright. In sunlight it is very small, and in twi- 
light its size is considerable. Behind the iris, and close to 
it, is a doubly convex lens, df, or ll in Fig. 5, b, called 


Fig. 5, B. 

the crystalline lens. It is more convex or round on the 
inner side, and it is suspended by the ciliary processes at 
lc, Lcf, by which it is supposed to be moved towards and 
from h, in order to accommodate the eye to different dis- 


tances, or obtain distinct vision at these distances. At the 
back of the eye is a thin pulpy transparent membrane, 
rr o rr, or vvv, called the retina, which, like the ground 
glass of a camera obscura, receives the images of visible 
objects. This membrane is an expansion of the optic nerve 
o, or a in Fig.. 5 4 A, which passes to the brain, and, by a 
process of whidkwe are ignorant, gives us vision of the 
objects whose images are formed on its expanded surface. 
The globular form of the eye is maintained by two fluids 
which fill it, — the aqueous humour, which lies between the 
crystalline lens and the cornea, and the vitreous humour, zz, 
which fills the back of the eye. 

But though we are ignorant of the manner in which the 
mind takes cognizance through the brain of the images on 
the retina, and may probably never know it, we can deter- 
mine experimentally the laws by which we obtain, through 
their images on the retina, a knowledge of the direction, 
the position, and the form of external objects. 

If the eye mn consisted only of a hollow ball with a 
small aperture h, an inverted image, a b, of any external 
object ab would be formed on the retina ror, exactly as in 
Fig. 4. A ray of light from a passing through h would 
strike the retina at a, and one from b would strike the 
retina at b. If the hole H is very small the inverted image 
ab would be very distinct, but very obscure. If the hole 
were the size of the pupil the image would be sufficiently 
luminous, but very indistinct. To remedy this the crystal- 
line lens is placed behind the pupil, and gives distinctness 
to the image ab formed in its focus. The image, however, 
still remains inverted, a ray from the upper part a of the 
object necessarily, falling on the lower part a of the retina, 


and a ray from the lower part b of the object upon the 
upper part b of the retina. Now, it has been proved by 
accurate experiments that in whatever direction a ray ah a 
falls upon the retina, it gives us the vision of the point a 
from which it proceeds, or causes us to see that point, in a 
direction perpendicular to the retina at a, the point on which 
it fells. It has also been proved that the human eye is 
nearly spherical, and that a line drawn perpendicular to the 
retina from any point a of the image a b will very nearly 
pass through the corresponding point a of the object ab, 1 
so that the point A is, in virtue of this law, which is called 
the Law of visible direction, seen in nearly its true direction. 
When we look at any object, ab, for example, we see only 
one point of it distinctly. In Fig. 5 the point d only is 
seen distinctly, and every point from d to a, and from d to 
B, less distinctly. The point of distinct vision on the retina 
is at d, corresponding with the point d of the object which is 
seen distinctly. This point d is the centre of the retina at 
the extremity of the line a Ha, called the optical axis of 
the eye, passing through the centre of the lens Lh, and the 
centre of the pupil. The point of distinct vision d corre- 
sponds with a small hole in the retina called the Foiwmen 
centrale, or central hole, from its being in the centre of the 
membrane. When we wish to see the points a and b, or 
any othef point of the object, we turn the eye upon them, 
so that their image may fall upon the central point d. 
This is done so easily and quickly that every point of an 
object is seen distinctly in an instant, and we obtain the 
most perfect knowledge of its form, colour, and direction. 

l Edinburgh Transactions, voL xv. p. 349. 1843; or Philotophical Magazine, 
▼oL xxt. pp. 356, 439, May and June 1844. 


The law of distinct vision may be thus expressed. Vision 
is most distinct when it is performed by the central point 
of the retina, and the distinctness decreases with the dis- 
tance from the central point. It is a carious fact, how- 
ever, that the most distinct point d is the least sensitive 
to light, and that the sensitiveness increases with the dis- 
tance from that point. This is proved by the remarkable 
fact, that when an astronomer cannot see a very minute 
star by looking at it directly along the optical axis dD, he 
can see it by looking away from it, and bringing its image 
upon a more sensitive part of the retina. 

But though we see with one eye the direction in which 
any object or point of an object is situated, we do not see 
its position, or the distance from the eye at which it is 
placed. If a small luminous point or flame is put into a 
dark room by another person, we cannot with one eye form 
anything like a correct estimate of its distance. Even in 
good light we cannot with one eye snuff a candle, or pour 
wine into a small glass at arm's length. In monocular 
vision, we learn from experience to estimate all distances, 
but particularly great ones, by various means, which are 
called the criteria of distance ; but it is only with both 
eyes that we can estimate with anything like accuracy the 
distance of objects not far from us. 

The criteria of distance, by which we are enabled with 
one eye to form an approximate estimate of the distance of 
objects are five in number. 

1. The interposition of numerous objects between the 
eye and the object whose distance we are appreciating. A 
distance at sea appears much shorter than the same distance 
on land, marked with houses, trees, and other objects ; and 


for the same reason, the sun and moon appear more dis- 
tant when rising or setting on the horizon of a flat country, 
than when in the zenith, or at great altitudes. 

2. The variation in the apparent magnitude of known 
objects, such as man, animals, trees, doors and windows of 
houses. If one of two men, placed at different distances 
from us, appears only half the size of the other, we cannot 
be far wrong in believing that the smallest in appear- 
ance is at twice the distance of the other. It is possible that 
the one may be a dwarf, and the other of gigantic stature, 
in which case our judgment would be erroneous, but even 
in this case other criteria might enable us to correct it. 

3. The degree of vivacity in the colours and tints of 

4. The degree of distinctness in the outline and minute 
parts of objects. 

5. To these criteria we may add the sensation of muscular 
action, or rather effort, by which we close the pupil in 
accommodating the eye to near distances, and produce the 

With all these means of estimating distances, it is only 
by binocular vision, in which we converge the optical axes 
upon the object, that we have the power of seeing distance 
within a limited range. 

But this is the only point in which Monocular is inferior 
to Binocular vision. In the following respects it is superior 
to it. 

1. When we look at oil paintings, the varnish on their 
surface reflects to each eye the light which falls upon it 
from certain parts of the room. By closing one eye we 
shut out the quantity of reflected light which enters it 


Pictures should always be viewed by the eye farthest from 
windows or lights in the apartment, as light diminishes the 
sensibility of the eye to the red rays. 

2. When we view a picture with both eyes, we discover, 
from the convergency of the optic axes, that the picture is 
on a plane surface, every part of which is nearly equidistant 
from us. But when we shut one eye, we do not make this 
discovery ; and therefore the effect with which the artist 
gives relief to the painting exercises its whole effect in de- 
ceiving us, and hence, in monocular vision, the relievo of 
the painting is much more complete. 

This influence over our judgment is beautifully shewn in 
viewing, with one eye, photographs either of persons, or 
landscapes, or solid objects. After a little practice, the 
illusion is very perfect, and is aided by the correct geome- 
trical perspective and chiaroscuro of the Daguerreotype 
or Talbotype. To this effect we may give the name of 
Monocular Relief, which, as we shall see, is necessarily 
inferior to Binocular Relief \ when produced by the stereo- 

3. As it very frequently happens that one eye has not 
exactly the same focal length as the other, and that, when it 
has, the vision by one eye is less perfect than that by the 
other, the picture formed by uniting a perfect with a less 
perfect picture, or with one of a different size, must be more 
imperfect than the single picture formed by one eye. 




We have already seen, in the history of the stereoscope, 
that in the binocular vision of objects, each eye sees a dif- 
ferent picture of the same object. In order to prove this, 
we require only to look attentively at our own hand held up 
before us, and observe how some parts of it disappear upon 
closing each eye. This experiment proves, at the same time, 
in opposition to the opinion of Baptista Porta, Tacquet, and 
others, that we always see two pictures of the same object 
combined in one. In confirmation of this fact, we have 
only to push aside one eye, and observe the image which 
belongs to it separate from the other, and again unite with 
it when the pressure is removed. 

It might have been supposed that an object seen by both 
eyes would be seen twice as brightly as with one, on the 
same principle as the light of two candles combined is twice 
as bright as the light of one. That this is not the case has 
been long known, and Dr. Jurin has proved by experiments, 
which we have carefully repeated and found correct, that the 
brightness of objects seen with two eyes is only -^th part 
greater than when they are seen with one eye. 1 The cause 

1 Smith's Opticks, vol. ii., Bern arks, p. 107. Harris makes the difference ^th 
«iSth;fl!p«ct,p. 117. 



CHAP. m. 

of this is well known. When both eyes are used, the pupils 
of each contract so as to admit the proper quantity of light ; 
but the moment we shut the right eye, the pupil of the left 
dilates to nearly twice its size, to compensate for the loss of 
light arising from the shutting of the other. 1 

This beautiful provision to supply the proper quantity of 
light when we can use only one eye, answers a still more 
important purpose, which has escaped the notice of optical 
writers. In binocular vision, as we have just seen, certain 
parts of objects are seen with both eyes, and certain parts 
only with one ; so that, if the parts seen with both eyes were 
twice as bright, or even much brighter than the parts seen 
with one, the object would appear spotted, from the different 
brightness of its parts. In Fig. 6, for example, (see p. 14,) 

Pig. 6. 

the areas bfi and cgi, the former of which is seen only by 
the left eye, d, and the latter only by the right eye, e, and 
the corresponding areas on the other side of the sphere, would 
be only half as bright as the portion figh, seen with 
both eyes, and the sphere would have a singular appearance. 
It has long been, and still is, a vexed question among 

1 This variation of the pupil U mentioned by Bacon. 

chap. m. 



philosophers, how we see objects single with two eyes. Bap- 
tista Porta, Tacquet, and others, got over the difficulty by 
denying the fact, and maintaining that we use only one eye, 
while other philosophers of distinguished eminence have 
adopted explanations still more groundless. The law of 
risible direction supplies us with the true explanation. 

Let us first suppose that we look with both eyes, b and 
l, Fig. 7, upon a luminous point, d, which we see single, 

Fig. 7. 

though there is a picture of it on the retina of each eye. 
In looking at the point D we turn or converge the optical 
axes rfHD, cWd, of each eye to the point d, an image of 
which is formed at d in the right eye r, and at d! in the 
left eye l. In virtue of the law of visible direction the 
point d is seen in the direction dv with the eye R, and in 
the direction d d with the eye l, these lines being perpen- 
dicular to the retina at the points d, d'. The one image of 
the point d is therefore seen lying upon the other, and con- 
sequently seen single. Considering d, then, as a single 
point of a visible object ab, the two eyes will see the points 
a and b single by the same process of turning or converg- 


ing upon them their optical axes, and so quickly does the 
point of convergence pass backward and forward over the 
whole object, that it appears single, though in reality only 
one point of it can be seen single at the same instant. 
The whole picture of the line ab, as seen with one eye, 
seems to coincide with the whole picture of it as seen with 
the other, and to appear single. The same is true of a 
surface or area, and also of a solid body or a landscape. 
Only one point of each is seen single ; but we do not 
observe that other points are double or indistinct, because 
the images of them are upon parts of the retina which do 
not give distinct vision, owing to their distance from the 
foramen or point which gives distinct vision. Hence we 
see the reason why distinct vision is obtained only on one 
point of the retina. Were it otherwise we should see every 
other point double when we look fixedly upon one part 
of an object. If in place of two eyes we had a hundred, 
capable of converging their optical axes to one point, we 
should, in virtue of the law of visible direction, see only 
one object. 

The most important advantage which we derive from 
the use of two eyes is to enable us to see distance, or a 
third dimension in space. That we have this power has 
been denied by Dr. Berkeley, and many distinguished 
philosophers, who maintain that our perception of distance 
is acquired by experience, by means of the criteria already 
mentioned. This is undoubtedly true for great distances, 
but we shall presently see, from the effects of the stereo- 
scope, that the successive convergency of the optic axes 
upon two points of an object at different distances, exhibits 
to us the difference of distance when we have no other 


possible means of perceiving it. If, for example, we sup- 
pose G, D, Fig. 7, to be separate points, or parts of an 
object, whose distances are go, do, then if we converge 
the optical axes hg, h'g upon g, and next turn them 
upon d, the points will appear to be situated at g and d 
at the distance gd from each other, and at the distances 
og, od from the observer, although there is nothing what- 
ever in the appearance of the points, or in the lights and 
shades of the object, to indicate distance. That this vision 
of distance is not the result of experience is obvious from 
the fact that distance is seen as perfectly by children as 
by adults; and it has been proved by naturalists that 
animals newly born appreciate distances with the greatest 
correctness. We shall afterwards see that so infallible is 
our vision of near distances, that a body whose real dis- 
tance we can ascertain by placing both our hands upon it, 
will appear at the greater or less distance at which it is 
placed by the convergency of the optical axes. 

We are now prepared to understand generally, how, in 
binocular vision, we see the difference between a picture 
and a statue, and between a real landscape and its repre- 
sentation. When we look at a picture of which every part 
is nearly at the same distance from the eyes, the point of 
convergence of the optical axes is nearly at the same dis- 
tance from the eyes; but when we look at its original, 
whether it be a living man, a statue, or a landscape, the 
optical axes are converged in rapid succession upon the 
nose, the eyes, and the ears, or upon objects in the fore- 
ground, the middle and the remote distances in the land- 
scape, and the relative distances of all these points from 
the eye are instantly perceived. The binocular relkf thus 


seen is greatly superior to the monocular relief already 

Since objects are seen in relief by the apparent union of 
two dissimilar plane pictures of them formed in each eye, it 
was a supposition hardly to be overlooked, that if we could 
delineate two plane pictures of a solid object, as seen 
dissimilarly with each eye, and unite their images by the 
convergency of the optical axes, we should see the solid of 
which they were the representation. The experiment was 
accordingly made by more than one person, and was found 
to succeed ; but as few have the power, or rather the art, 
of thus converging their optical axes, it became necessary 
to contrive an instrument for doing this. 

The first contrivances for this purpose were, as we have 
already stated, made by Mr. Elliot and Mr. Wheatstone. 
A description of these, and of others better fitted for the 
purpose, will be found in the following chapter. 




Although it is by the combination of two plane pic- 
tures of an object, as seen by each eye, that we see the 
object in relief, yet the relief is not obtained from the mere 
combination or superposition of the two dissimilar pictures. 
The superposition is effected by turning each eye upon the 
object, but the relief is given by the play of the optic axes 
in uniting, in rapid succession, similar points of the two 
pictures, and placing them, for the moment, at the distance 
from the observer of the point to which the axes converge. 
If the eyes were to unite the two images into one, and to 
retain their power of distinct vision, while they lost the 
power of changing the position of their optic axes, no relief 
would be produced. 

This is equally true when we unite two dissimilar photo- 
graphic pictures by fixing the optic axes on a point nearer 
to or farther from the eye. Though the pictures apparently 
coalesce, yet the relief is given by the subsequent play of 
the optic axes varying their angles, and converging them- 
selves successively upon, and uniting, the similar points 
in each picture that correspond to different distances from 
the observer. 


As very few persons have the power of thus uniting, by 
the eyes alone, the two dissimilar pictures of the object, the 
stereoscope has been contrived to enable them to combine 
the two pictures, but it is not the stereoscope, as has been 
imagined, that gives the relief. The instrument is merely 
a substitute for the muscular power which brings the two 
pictures together. The relief is produced, as formerly, solely 
by the subsequent play of the optic axes. If the relief 
were the effect of the apparent union of the pictures, we 
should see it by looking with one eye at the combined 
binocular pictures — an experiment which could be made 
by optical means; but we should look for it in vain. 
The combined pictures would be as flat as the combina- 
tion of two similar pictures. These experiments require to 
be made with a thorough knowledge of the subject, for 
when the eyes are converged on one point of the combined 
picture, this point has the relief or distance from the eye, 
corresponding to the angle of the optic axes, and there- 
fore the adjacent points are, as it were, brought into a sort 
of indistinct relief along with it ; but the optical reader will 
see at once that the true binocular relief cannot be given to 
any other parts of the picture, till the axes of the eyes are 
converged upon them. These views will be more readily 
comprehended when we have explained, in a subsequent 
chapter, the theory of stereoscopic vision. 

The Ocular Stereoscope. 

We have already stated that objects are seen in perfect 
relief when we unite two dissimilar photographic pictures of 
them, either by converging the optic axes upon a point so 
far in front of the pictures or so far beyond them, that two 


of the four images are combined. In both these cases each 
picture is seen double, and when the two innermost of the 
four, thus produced, unite, the original object is seen in 
relief. The simplest of these methods is to converge the 
optical axes to a point nearer to us than the pictures, and 
this may be best done by holding up a finger between the 
eyes and the pictures, and placing it at such a distance that, 
when we see it single, the two innermost of the four pic- 
tures are united. If the finger is held up near the dis- 
similar pictures, they will be slightly doubled, the two 
images of each overlapping one other; but by bringing 
the finger nearer the eye, and seeing it singly and distinctly, 
the overlapping images will separate more and more till 
they unite. We have, therefore, made our eyes a stereo- 
scope, and we may, with great propriety, call it the Ocular 
Stereoscope. If we wish to magnify the picture in relief, we 
have only to use convex spectacles, which will produce the 
requisite magnifying power ; or what is still better, to mag- 
nify the united pictures with a powerful reading-glass. The 
two single images are hid by advancing the reading-glass, 
and the other two pictures are kept united with a less strain 
upon the eyes. 

As very few people can use their eyes in this manner, 
some instrumental auxiliary became necessary, and it appears 
to us strange that the simplest method of doing this did 
not occur to Mr. Elliot and Mr. Wheatstone, who first 
thought of giving us the help of an instrument By en- 
abling the left eye to place an image of the left-hand picture 
upon the right-hand picture, as seen by the naked eye, we 
should have obtained a simple instrument, which might be 
called the Monocular Stereoscope, and which we shall have 




occasion to describe. The same contrivance applied also 
to the right eye, would make the instrument Binocular. 
Another simple contrivance for assisting the eyes would have 
been to furnish them with a minute opera-glass, or a small 
astronomical telescope about an inch long, which, when held 
in the hand or placed in a pyramidal box, would unite the 
dissimilar pictures with the greatest facility and perfection. 
This form of the stereoscope will be afterwards described 
under the name of the Opera-Glass Stereoscope. 

Description of the Ocular Stereoscope. 

A stereoscope upon the principle already described, in 
which the eyes alone are the agent, was contrived, in 1834, 
by Mr. Elliot, as we have already had occasion to state. He 
placed the binocular pictures, described in Chapter L, at 
one end of a box, and without the aid either of lenses or 
mirrors, he obtained a landscape in perfect relief. I have 
examined this stereoscope, and have given, in Fig. 8, an 

Fig. 8. 

accurate though reduced drawing of the binocular pictures 
executed and used by Mr. Elliot I have also united the 




two original pictures by the convergency of the optic axe* 
beyond them, and have thus seen the landscape in true 
relief. To delineate these binocular pictures upon stereo- 
scopic principles was a bold undertaking, and establishes, 
beyond all controversy, Mr. Elliot's claim to the invention 
of the ocular stereoscope. 

If we unite the two pictures in Fig. 8, by converging 
the optio axes to a point nearer the eye than the pictures, 
we shall see distinctly the stereoscopic relief, the moon 
being in the remote distance, the cross in the middle dis- 
tance, and the stump of a tree in the foreground. 

If we place the two pictures as in Fig. 9, which is the 
position they had in Mr. Elliot's box, and unite them, 

Fig. 9. 

by looking at a point beyond them we shall also observe 
the stereoscopic relief. In this position Mr. Elliot saw the 
relief without any effort, and even without being conscious 
that he was not viewing the pictures under ordinary vision. 
This tendency of the optic axes to a distant convergency is 
so rare that I have met with it only in one person. 

As the relief produced by the union of such imperfect 


pictures was sufficient only to shew the correctness of the 
principle, the friends to whom Mr. Elliot shewed the 
instrument thought it of little interest, and he therefore 
neither prosecuted the subject, nor published any account 
of his contrivance. 

Mr. Wheatstone suggested a similar contrivance, without 
either mirrors or lenses. In order to unite the pictures by 
converging the optic axes to a point between them and the 
eye, he proposed to place them in a box to hide the lateral 
image and assist in making them unite with the naked 
eyes. In order to produce the union by looking at a point 
beyond the picture, he suggested the use of " a pair of 
tubes capable of being inclined to each other at various 
angles," the pictures being placed on a stand in front of 
the tubes. These contrivances, however, though auxiliary 
to the use of the naked eyes, were superseded by the 
Reflecting Stereoscope, which we shall now describe. 

Description of the Reflecting Stereoscope. 

This form of the stereoscope, which we owe to Mr. 
Wheatstone, is shewn in Fig. 10, and is described by him 
in the following terms : — " a a' are two plane mirrors, 
(whether of glass or metal is not stated,) about four inches 
square, inserted in frames, and so adjusted that their 
backs form an angle of 90° with each other ; these mirrors 
are fixed by their common edge against an upright b, or, 
which was less easy to represent in the drawing against 
the middle of a vertical board, cut away in such a manner 
as to allow the eyes to be placed before the two mirrors, 
c, d are two sliding boards, to which are attached the 
upright boards d, d', which may thus be removed to different 




distances from the minors. In most of the experiments 
hereafter to be detailed it is necessary that each upright 
board shall be at the same distance from the mirror which 

Fig. 10. 

is opposite to it. To facilitate this double adjustment, I 
employ a right and a left-handed wooden screw, r, I ; the 
two ends of this compound screw pass through the nuts e, e\ 
which are fixed to the lower parts of the upright boards 
d, d, so that by turning the screw pin p one way the two 
boards will approach, and by turning them the other they 
will recede from each other, one always preserving the same 
distance as the other from the middle line// e, e 1 are pan- 
nels to which the pictures are fixed in such manner that 
their corresponding horizontal lines shall be on the same 
level ; these pannels are capable of sliding backwards or 
forwards in grooves on the upright boards i>, d'. The 
apparatus having been described, it now remains to ex- 
plain the manner of using it. The observer must place 
his eyes as near as possible to the mirrors, the right eye 


before the right-hand mirror, and the left eye before the 
left-hand mirror, and he must move the sliding pannels 
e, e' to or from him till the two reflected images coincide 
at the intersection of the optic axes, and form an image of 
the same apparent magnitude as each of the component 
pictures. The picture will, indeed, coincide when the 
sliding pannels are in a variety of different positions, and, 
consequently, when viewed under different inclinations of 
the optic axes, but there is only one position in which 
the binocular image will be immediately seen single, of its 
proper magnitude, and without fatigue to the eyes, because 
in this position only the ordinary relations between the 
magnitude of the pictures on the retina, the inclination of 
the optic axes, and the adaptation of the eye to distinct 
vision at different distances, are preserved. In all the 
experiments detailed in the present memoir I shall suppose 
these relations to remain undisturbed, and the optic axes 
to converge about six or eight inches before the eyes. 

" If the pictures are all drawn to be seen with the same 
inclination of the optic axes the apparatus may be simpli- 
fied by omitting the screw rl, and fixing the upright boards 
D, d' at the proper distance. The sliding pannels may also 
be dispensed with, and the drawings themselves be made 
to slide in the grooves." 

The figures to which Mr. Wheatstone applied this instru- 
ment were pairs of outline representations of objects of 
three dimensions, such as a cube, a cone, the frustum of a 
square pyramid, which is shewn on one side of e,e' in 
Fig. 10, and in other figures; and he employed them, as 
he observes, " for the purpose of illustration, for had either 
shading or colouring been introduced it might be supposed 


that the effect was wholly or in part due to these circum- 
stances, whereas, by leaving them out of consideration, no 
room is left to doubt that the entire effect of relief is owing 
to the simultaneous perception of the two monocular pro- 
jections, one on each retina." 

" Careful attention," he adds, " would enable an artist 
to draw and paint the two component pictures, so as 
to present to the mind of the observer, in the resultant 
perception, perfect identity with the object represented. 
Flowers, crystals, busts, vases, instruments of various kinds, 
&&, might thus be represented, so as not to be distinguished 
by sight from the real objects themselves" 

This expectation has never been realized, for it is obvi- 
ously beyond the reach of the highest art to draw two 
copies of a flower or a bust with such accuracy of outline 
or colour as to produce " perfect identity," or anything 
approaching to it, " with the object represented." 

Photography alone can furnish us with such representa- 
tions of natural and artificial objects ; and it is singular 
that neither Mr. Elliot nor Mr. Wheatstone should have 
availed themselves of the well-known photographic process 
of Mr. Wedgewood and Sir Humphry Davy, which, as Mr. 
Wedgewood remarks, wanted only " a method of preventing 
the unshaded parts of the delineation from being coloured 
by exposure to the day, to render the process as useful as 
it is elegant." When the two dissimilar photographs were 
taken they could have been used in the stereoscope in 
candle-light, or in faint day-light, till they disappeared, or 
permanent outlines of them might have been taken and 
coloured after nature. 

Mr. Fox Talbot's beautiful process of producing perma- 


nent photographs was communicated to the Royal Society 
in January 1839, but no attempt was made till some 
years later to make it available for the stereoscope. 

In a chapter on binocular pictures, and the method of 
executing them in order to reproduce, with perfect accuracy, 
the objects which they represent, we shall recur to this 
branch of the subject. 

Upon obtaining one of these reflecting stereoscopes as 
made by the celebrated optician, Mr. Andrew Ross, I 
found it to be very ill adapted for the purpose of uniting 
dissimilar pictures, and to be imperfect in various respects. 
Its imperfections may be thus enumerated : — 

1. It is a clumsy and unmanageable apparatus, rather 
than an instrument for general use. The one constructed for 
me was 16£ inches long, 6 inches broad, and 8£ inches 

2. The loss of light occasioned by reflection from the 
mirrors is very great. In all optical instruments where 
images are to be formed, and light is valuable, mirrors and 
specula have been discontinued. Reflecting microscopes 
have ceased to be used, but large telescopes, such as those 
of Sir W. and Sir John Herschel, Lord Rosse, and Mr. 
Lassel, were necessarily made on the reflecting principle, 
from the impossibility of obtaining plates of glass of suffi- 
cient size. 

3. In using glass mirrors, of which the reflecting stereo- 
scope is always made, we not only lose much more than 
half the light by the reflections from the glass and the me- 
tallic surface, and the absorbing power of the glass, but the 
images produced by reflection are made indistinct by the 
oblique incidence of the rays, which separates the image 


produced by the glass surface from the more brilliant image 
produced by the metallic surface. 

4. In all reflections, as Sir Isaac Newton states, the 
errors are greater than in refraction. With glass mirrors 
in the stereoscope, we have four refractions in each mirror, 
and the light transmitted through twice the thickness of the 
glass, which lead to two sources of error. 

5. Owing to the exposure of the eye and every part of 
the apparatus to light, the eye itself is unfitted for distinct 
vision, and the binocular pictures become indistinct, espe- 
cially if they are Daguerreotypes, 1 by reflecting the light 
incident from every part of the room upon their glass or 
metallic surface. 

6. The reflecting stereoscope is inapplicable to the beau- 
tiful binocular slides which are now being taken for the 
lenticular stereoscope in every part of the world, and even 
if we cut in two those on paper and silver plate, they would 
give, in the reflecting instrument, converse pictures, the 
right-hand part of the picture being placed on the left-hand 
aide, and vice verm. 

7. With transparent binocular slides cut in two, we could 
obtain pictures by reflection that are not converse ; but in 
using them, we would require to have two lights, one oppo- 
site each of the pictures, which can seldom be obtained in 
daylight, and which it is inconvenient to have at night 

Owing to these and other causes, the reflecting stereo- 
scope never came into use, even after photography was 
capable of supplying binocular pictures. 

As a set-off against these disadvantages, it has been 

i Mr. Wheatstone himself says, " that it is somewhat difficult to render the two 
Daguerreotypes equally risible."— PAUL Trans., 1852, p. & 




averred that in the reflecting stereoscope we can use larger 
pictures, but this, as we shall shew in a future chapter, is 
altogether an erroneous assertion. , 

Description of the Lenticular Stereoscope. 

Having found that the reflecting stereoscope, when in- 
tended to produce accurate results, possessed the defects which 
I have described, and was ill fitted for general use, both 
from its size and its price, it occurred to me that the union 
of the dissimilar pictures could be better effected by means 
of lenses, and that a considerable magnifying power would 
be thus obtained, without any addition to the instrument. 

If we suppose a, b, Fig. 1 1, to be two portraits, — a a por- 
trait of a gentleman, as seen by the left eye of a person 

Fio. n. 
viewing him at the proper distance and in the best 
position, and b his portrait as seen by the right eye, the 
purpose of the stereoscope is to place these two pictures, or 
rather their images, one above the other. The method of 


doing this by lenses may be explained, to persons not ac- 
quainted with optics, in the following manner : — 

If we look at a with one eye through the centre of a con- 
vex glass, with which we can see it distinctly at the distance 
of 6 inches, which is called its focal distance, it will be seen 
in its place at A. If we now move the lens from right to 
left, the image of A will move towards b ; and when it is 
seen through the r^rfo-hand edge of the lens, the image of 
A will have reached the position c, half-way between a and 
b. If we repeat this experiment with the portrait b, and 
move the lens from left to right y the image of b will move 
towards a ; and when it is seen through the fe/fc-hand edge of 
the lens, the image of b will have reached the position c. 
Now, it is obviously by the rigte-hxn& half of the lens that 
we have transferred the image of a to c, and by the Z^-hand 
half that we have transferred the image of b to c. If we 
cut the lens in two, and place the halves — one in front 
of each picture at the distance of 2 J inches — in the same 
position in which they were when a was transferred to c and 
b to c, they will stand as in Fig. 12, and we shall see the 

Fig. 12. 

portraits A and b united into one at o, and standing out in 
beautiful relief, — a result which will be explained in a sub- 
sequent chapter. 


The same effect will be produced by quarter lenses, such 
as those shewn in Fig. 13. These lenses are cut into a round 

Fig. 13. 

or square form, and placed in tubes, as represented at r, l 
in Fig. 14, which is a drawing of the Lenticular Stereoscope. 
This instrument consists of a pyramidal box, Fig. 14, 
blackened inside, and having a lid, o d, for the admission of 
light when required. The top of the box consists of two 
parts, in one of which is the right-eye tube, R, containing 
the lens o, Fig. 13, and in the other the left-eye tube, l, 
containing the lens h. The two parts which hold the 
lenses, and which form the top of the box, are often made 
to slide in grooves, so as to suit different persons whose eyes, 
placed at r, l, are more or less distant. This adjustment 
may be made by various pieces of mechanism. The sim- 
plest of these is a jointed parallelogram, moved by a screw 
forming its longer diagonal, and working in nuts fixed on 
the top of the box, so as to separate the semi-lenses, which 
follow the movements of the obtuse angles of the parallelo- 
gram. The tubes R, l move up and down, in order to suit 
eyes of different focal lengths, but they are prevented from 
turning round by a brass pin, which runs in a groove cut 
through the movable tube. Immediately below the eye- 
tubes r, l, there should be a groove, o, for the introduction 
of convex or concave lenses, when required for very long- 


sighted or short-sighted persons, or for coloured glasses and 
other purposes. 

If we now put the slide ab, Fig. 1 1, into the horizontal 
opening at s, turning up the sneck above s to prevent it 

Fig. 14. 

from falling out, and place ourselves beldnd e, l, we shall 
see, by looking through r with the right eye and l with 
the left eye, the two images a, b united in one, and in the 
same relief as the living person whom they represent. No 
portrait ever painted, and no statue ever carved, approxi- 
mate in the slightest degree to the living reality now before 
us. If we shut the right eye R we see with the left eye 
L merely the portrait a, but it has now sunk into a flat 
picture, with only monocular relief. By closing the left 
eye we shall see merely the portrait b, having, like the 
other, only monocular relief, but a relief greater than the 
best-painted pictures can possibly have, when seen even 


with one eye. When we open both eyes, the two portraits 
instantly start into all the roundness and solidity of life. 

Many persons experience a difficulty in seeing the por- 
traits single when they first look into a stereoscope, in 
consequence of their eyes having less power than common 
over their optic axes, or from their being more or less 
distant than two and a half inches, the average distance. 
The two images thus produced frequently disappear in a 
few minutes, though sometimes it requires a little patience 
and some practice to see the single image. We have 
known persons who have lost the power of uniting the 
images, in consequence of having discontinued the use of 
the instrument for some months; but they have always 
acquired it again after a little practice. 

If the portraits or other pictures are upon opaque paper 
or silver-plate, the stereoscope, which is usually held in 
the left hand, must be inclined so as to allow the light of 
the sky, or any other light, to illuminate every part of the 
pictures. If the pictures are on transparent paper or 
glass, we must shut the lid CD, and hold up the stereo- 
scope against the sky or the artificial light, for which pur- 
pose the bottom of the instrument is made of glass finely 
ground on the outside, or has two openings, the size of each 
of the binocular pictures, covered with fine paper. 

In using the stereoscope the observer should always be 
seated, and it is very convenient to have the instrument 
mounted like a telescope, upon a stand, with a weight and 
pulley for regulating the motion of the lid CD. 

The lenticular stereoscope may be constructed of various 
materials and in different forms. I had them made origi- 
ginally of card-board, tin-plate, wood, and brass ; but wood 


is certainly the best material when cheapness is not an 

One of the earliest forms which I adopted was that 
which is shewn in Fig. 15, as made by M. Duboscq in 
Paris, and which may be called stereoscopic spectacles. The 

Fig. 15. 

two-eye lenses l, r are held by the handle h, so that we 
can, by moving them to or from the binocular pictures, 
obtain distinct vision and unite them in one. The effect, 
however, is not so good as that which is produced when 
the pictures are placed in a box. 

The same objection applies to a form otherwise more 
convenient, which consists in fixing a cylindrical or square 
rod of wood or metal to c, the middle point between l and 
R. The binocular slide having a hole in the middle between 
the two pictures is moved along this rod to its proper dis- 
tance from the lenses. 




Another form, analogous to this, but without the means 
of moving the pictures, is shewn in Fig. 16, as made by 
M. Duboscq. The adjustment is effected by moving the 

Fig. 16. 

eye-pieces in their respective tubes, and by means of a 
screw-nut, shewn above the eye-pieces, they can be adapted 
to eyes placed at different distances from one another. 
The advantage of this form, if it is an advantage, consists 
in allowing us to use larger pictures than can be admitted 
into the box-stereoscope of the usual size. A box-stereo- 
scope, however, of the same size, would have the same 
property and other advantages not possessed by the open 

Another form of the lenticular stereoscope, under the 
name of the cosmorama stereoscope, has been adopted 
by Mr. Knight. The box is rectangular instead of pyra- 
midal, and the adjustment to distinct vision is made by 
pulling out or pushing in a part of the box, instead 
of the common and better method of moving each lens 


separately. The illumination of the pictures is made in 
the same manner as in the French instrument, called the 
cosmorama, for exhibiting dissolving viewB. The lenses 
are large in surface, which, without any reason, is supposed 
to facilitate the view of the binocular pictures, and the 
instrument is supported in a horizontal position upon a 
stand. There is no contrivance for adjusting the distance 
of the lenses to the distance between the eyes, and owing 
to the quantity of light which gets into the interior of 
the box, the stereoscopic picture is injured by false reflec- 
tions, and the sensibility of the eyes diminished. The 
exclusion of all light from the eyes, and of every other 
light from the picture but that which illuminates it, 
is essentially necessary to the perfection of stereoscopic 

When by means of any of these instruments we have 
succeeded in forming a single image of the two pictures, 
we have only, as I have already explained, placed the one 
picture above the other, in so far as the stereoscope is 
concerned. It is by the subsequent action of the two 
eyes that we obtain the desired relief. Were we to 
unite the two pictures when transparent, and take a copy 
of the combination by the best possible camera, the result 
would be a blurred picture, in which none of the points or 
lines of the one would be united with the points or lines 
of the other ; but were we to look at the combination with 
both eyes the blurred picture would start into relief, the 
eyes uniting in succession the separate points and lines of 
which it is composed. 

Now, since, in the stereoscope, when looked into with 
two eyes, we see the picture in relief with the same accu- 



CHAP. rv. 

racy as, in ordinary binocular vision, we see the same object 
in relief by uniting on the retina two pictures exactly the 
same as the binocular ones, the mere statement of this 
fact has been regarded as the theory of the stereoscope. 
We shall see, however, that it is not, and that it remains 
to be explained, more minutely than we have done in 
Chapter III., both how we see objects in relief in ordinary 
binocular vision, and how we see them in the same relief 
by uniting ocularly, or in the stereoscope, two dissimilar 
images of them. 

Before proceeding, however, to this subject, we must 
explain the manner in which half and quarter lenses unite 
the two dissimilar pictures. 

In Fig. 17 is shewn a semi-lens mn, with its section 


a a ' 

Fig. 17. 

m'n.' If we look at any object successively through the 
portions aa'a" in the semi-lens mn, corresponding to a a' a" 
in the section m'n', which is the same as in a quarter-lens, 
the object will be magnified equally in all of them, but it will 
be more displaced, or more refracted, towards N, by looking 
through a' or a than through a or a, and most of all by 
looking through a" or a", the refraction being greatest at a" 
or a", less at a' or a', and still less at a or a. By means of 
a semi-lens, or a quarter of a lens of the size of mn, we can, 


with an aperture of the size of a, obtain three different 
degrees of displacement or refraction, without any change 
of the magnifying power. 

If we use a thicker lens, as shewn at m'n'ww, keeping 
the curvature of the surface the same, we increase the re- 
fracting angle at its margin n' n, we can produce any degree 
of displacement we require, either for the purposes of experi- 
ment, or for the duplication of large binocular pictures. 

When two half or quarter lenses are used as a stereoscope, 
the displacement of the two pictures is produced in the 
manner shewn in Fig. 18, where ll is the lens for the left 
eye e, and l'l' that for the right eye e', placed so that the 
middle points, no, n'o, of each are 2^ inches distant, like 
the two eyes. The two binocular pictures which are to be 
united are shewn at a b, ab, and placed at nearly the same 
distance. The pictures being fixed in the focus of the lenses, 
the pencils ano, A'n'o', bno, B'n'o', will be refracted at the 
points n, o, n',o, and at their points of incidence on the 
second surface, so as to enter the eyes, e, e / , in parallel 
directions, though not shewn in the Figure. The points 
a, a, of one of the pictures, will therefore be seen distinctly 
in the direction of the refracted ray — that is, the pencils an, 
ao, issuing from a', will be seen as if they came from a 1 , 
and the pencils bn, bo, as if they came from b', so that ab 
will be transferred by refraction to a'b'. In like manner, 
the picture ab will be transferred by refraction to a'b', and 
thus united with a'b\ 

The pictures ab, ab thus united are merely circles, and 
will therefore be seen as a single circle at a'b'. But if we 
suppose ab to be the base of the frustum of a cone, and cd 
its summit, as seen by the left eye, and the circles ab, cd 




to represent the base and summit of the same solid as seen 
by the right eye, then it is obvious that when the pictures of 

ed and cd are similarly displaced or refracted by the lenses 
ll l'l', so that cd is equal to ua! and dd' to BB*, the 
circles will not be united, but will overlap one another as at 


cfD', dd', in consequence of being carried beyond their 
place of union. The eyes, however, will instantly unite 
them into one by converging their axes to a remoter point, 
and the united circles will rise from the paper, or from the 
base a'b', and place the single circle at the point of con- 
vergence, as the summit of the frustum of a hollow cone 
whose base is a'b'. If cd, cd had been farther from one 
another than ab, ab, as in Figs. 20 and 21, they would 
still have overlapped though not carried up to their place 
of union. The eyes, however, will instantly unite them by 
converging their axes to a nearer point, and the united 
circles will rise from the paper, or from the base ab, and 
form the summit of the frustum of a raised cone whose 
base is a'b'. 

In the preceding illustration we have supposed the solid 
to consist only of a base and a summit, or of parts at 
two different distances from the eye ; but what is true of 
two distances is true of any number, and the instant that 
the two pictures are combined by the lenses they will exhibit 
in relief the body which they represent. If the pictures are 
refracted too little, or if they are refracted too much, so as not 
to be united, their tendency to unite is so great, that they 
are soon brought together by the increased or diminished 
convergency of the optic axes, and the stereoscopic effect 
is produced. Whenever two pictures are seen, no relief is 
visible ; when only one picture is distinctly seen, the relief 
must be complete. 

In the preceding diagram we have not shewn the refrac- 
tion at the second surface of the lenses, nor the parallelism 
of the rays when they enter the eye, — facte well known 
in elementary optics. 




Having, in the preceding chapter, described the ocular, 
the reflecting, and the lenticular stereoscopes, and explained 
the manner in which the two binocular pictures are com- 
bined or laid upon one another in the last of these instru- 
ments, we shall now proceed to consider the theory of 
stereoscopic vision. 

In order to understand how the two pictures, when placed 
the one above the other, rise into relief we must first explain 
the manner in which a solid object itself is, in ordinary vision, 
seen in relief, and we shall then shew how this process takes 
place in the two forms of the ocular stereoscope, and in the 
lenticular stereoscope. For this purpose, let ab cd, Fig. 1 9, 
be a section of the frustum of a cone, that is, a cone with its 
top cut off by a plane cevg, and having aebo for its base. 
In order that the figure may not be complicated, it will be 
sufficient to consider how we see, with two eyes, L and r, 
the cone as projected upon a plane passing through its 
summit QeT>g. The points l, r being the points of sight, 
draw the lines ra, rb, which will cut the plane on which 
the projection is to be made in the points a, b, so that ab 
will represent the line ab, and a circle, whose diameter is 
a b 9 will represent the base of the cone, as seen by the right 




eye b. In like manner, by drawing la, lb, we shall find 
that a' b' will represent the line ab, and a circle, whose 

Fig. 19. 

diameter is a'b', the base aebg, as seen by the left eye. 
The summit, cevg, of the frustum being in the plane of 
projection, will be represented by the circle cejyg. The 
representation of the frustum a bod, therefore, upon a plane 


surface, as Been by the left eye l, consists of two circles, 
whose diameters are ab, cd ; and, as seen by the right eye, 
of other two circles, whose diameters are aft, cd, which, in 
Fig. 20, are represented by ab, od, and ab, cd. These 

Fio. 20. 

plane figures being also the representation of the solid on 
the retina of the two eyes, how comes it that we see the 
solid and not the plane pictures 1 When we look at the 
point b, Fig. 19, with both eyes, we converge upon it the 
optic axes lb, rb, and we therefore see the point single, and 
at the distances l b, r b from each eye. When we look at the 
point d, we withdraw the optic axes from B, and converge 
them upon d. We therefore see the point d single, and at 
the distances ld, rd from each eye ; and in like manner 
the eyes run over the whole solid, seeing every point single 
and distinct upon which they converge their axes, and at 
the distance of the point of convergence from the observer. 
During this rapid survey of the object, tbe whole of it is 
seen distinctly as a solid, although every point of it is seen 
double and indistinct, excepting the point upon which the 
axes are for the instant converged. 

From these observations it is obvious, that when we look 
with both eyes at any solid or body in relief, we see more of 
the right side of it by the right eye, and more of the left side 


of it by the left eye. The right side of the frustum abcd, 
Fig. 19, is represented by the line vb, as seen by the right 
eye, and by the shorter line db', as seen by the left eye. 
In like manner, the left side ac is represented by ca', as 
seen by the left eye, and by the shorter line ca', as seen by 
the right eye. 

When the body is hollow, like a wine glass, we see more 
of the right side with the left eye, and more of the left side 
with the right eye. 

If we now separate, as in Fig. 20, the two projections 
shewn together on Fig. 19, we shall see that the two 
summits, cd, cd, of the frustum are farther from one 
another than the more distant bases, ab, ab, and it is true 
generally that in the two pictures of any solid in relief, the 
similar parts that are near the observer are more distant in 
the two pictures than the remoter parts, when the plane of 
perspective is beyond the object. In the binocular picture 
of the human face the distance between the two noses is 
greater than the distance between the two right or left 
eyes, and the distance between the two right or left eyes 
greater than the distance between the two remoter ears. 

We are now in a condition to explain the process by 
which, with the eyes alone, we can see a solid in relief by 
uniting the right and left eye pictures of it,— -or the theory 
ocular stereoscope. In order to obtain the proper relief 
we must place the right eye picture on the left side, and 
the left eye picture on the right side, as shewn in Fig. 21, 
by the pictures abcd, abed, of the frustum of a cone, as 
obtained from Fig. 19. 

In order to unite these two dissimilar projections, we 
must converge the optical axes to a point nearer the ob- 




server, or look at some point about m. Both pictures will 
immediately be doubled. An image of the figure a b will 
advance towards p, and an image of ab will likewise 

Fio. 21. 

advance towards p ; and the instant these images are united, 
the frustum of a cone, which they represent, will appear in 


relief at mn, the place where the optic axes meet or cross 
each other. At first the solid figure will appear in the 
middle, between the two pictures from which it is formed 
and of the same size, but after some practice it will appear 
smaller and nearer the eye. Its smallness is an optical 
illusion, as it has the same angle of apparent magnitude 
as the plane figures, namely, mnh = abl ; but its position 
at mn is a reality, for if we look at the point of our finger 
held beyond m the solid figure will be seen nearer the eye. 
The difficulty which we experience in seeing it of the size 
and in the position shewn in Fig. 21, arises from its being 
seen along with its two plane representations, as we shall 
prove experimentally when we treat in a future chapter of 
the union of similar figures by the eye. 

The two images being thus superimposed, or united, we 
shall now see that the combined images are seen in relief 
in the very same way that in ordinary vision we saw the 
real solid, abcd, Fig. 19, in relief, by the union of the 
two pictures of it on the retina. From the points a,b,c,d, 

a, 6, c, d, draw lines to l and b, the centres of visible direction 
of each eye, and it will be seen that the circles ab, ab, 
representing the base of the cone, can be united by con- 
verging the optical axes to points in the line mn, and that 
the circles cd, cd, which are more distant, can be united 
only by converging the optic axes to points in the line op. 
The points a, a, for example, united by converging the 
axes to m, are seen at that point single ; the points 

b, b at n single, the points c, c at o single, the points 
d, d at p single, the centres s, * of the base at m single, 
and the centres a',** of the summit plane at x single. 
Hence the eyes l and b see the combined pictures at 



mn in relief, exactly in the same manner as they saw in 
relief the original solid mn in Pig. 19. 

In order to find the height mn of the conical frustum 
thus seen, let d = distance op; d = B8, the distance of the two 
points united at m ; d = a'*, the distance of the two points 
united at n ; and c = lr = 2£ inches, the distance of the 
eyes. Then we have — 

MP = 

c + d 

> + d'' 

D d D^ 

np = -B* and 
c + d'' 

If d = 9-24 inches, 

c = 2-50, then 
d = 2-H, 
d' = 2'±2, and 
mn ^ 0-283, the height of the cone. 

When c = ^,mp=:^. 
' 2c 

As the summit plane op rises above the base mn by 
the successive convergency of the optic axes to different 
points in the line otfp, it may be asked how it happens 
that the conical frustum still appears a solid, and the plane 
op where it is, when the optic axes are converged to points 
in the line mMn, so as to see the base distinctly ? The 
reason of this is that the rays emanate from op exactly in 
the same manner, and form exactly the same image of it, 
on the two retinas as if it were the summit cd, Fig. 19, 
of the real solid when seen with both eyes. The only effect 
of the advance of the point of convergence from N to m is 
to throw the image of n a little to the right side of the 


optic axis of the left eye, and a little to the left of the 
optic axis of the right eye. The summit plane op will there- 
fore retain its place, and will be seen slightly doubled and 
indistinct till the point of convergence again returns to it. 

It has been already stated that the two dissimilar pic- 
tures may be united by converging the optical axes to a 
point beyond them. In order to do this, the distance 
ss' of the pictures, Fig. 21, must be greatly less than the 
distance of the eyes l, r, in order that the optic axes, in 
passing through similar points of the two plane pictures, 
may meet at a moderate distance beyond them. In order 
to explain how the relief is produced in this case, let ab, cd, 
a b, cd, Fig. 22, be the dissimilar pictures of the frustum 
of a cone whose summit is cd, as seen by the right eye, and 
cd as seen by the left eye. From l and r, as before, 
draw lines through all the leading points of the pictures, 
and we shall have the points a, a united at m, the points 
b, b at n, the points c, c at o, and the points d, d at p, 
the points s, a at m, and the points s', tf at n, forming the 
cone mnop, with its base mn towards the observer, and its 
summit op more remote. If the cone had been formed of 
lines drawn from the outline of the summit to the outline of 
the base, it would now appear hollow, the inside of it being 
seen in place of the outside as before. If the pictures 
ab, ab are made to change places the combined picture 
would be in relief, while in the case shewn in Fig. 21 
it would have been hollow. Hence the rigJti-eye view of 
any solid must be placed on the left hand, and the lefLeye 
view of it on the right hand, when we wish to obtain it in 
relief by converging the optic axes to a point between the 
pictures and the eye, and vice versa when we wish to obtain 




it in relief by converging the optic axes to a point beyond 
the pictures. In every case when we wish the combined 

Fig. 22. 

pictures to represent a hollow, or the converse of relief, 
their places must be exchanged. 


In order to find the height hn, or rather the depth of 
the cone in Pig. 22, let d, d, c, c, represent the same quan- 
tities as before, and we shall have 

c — a 

np = p ., , and 
c — a ' 

^_ dcF nd 

0P = > j 

c — a c — a 

When d, c, d 7 d' have the same values as before, we shall have 

hn = 18-7 feet ! 
When c = d 9 mp will be infinite. 

We have already explained how the two binocular pic- 
tures are combined or laid upon one another in the lenti- 
cular stereoscope. Let us now see how the relief is 
obtained. The two plane pictures abc d, a b c d, in Pig. 1 8, 
are, as we have already explained, combined or simply laid 
upon one another by the lenses ll, l'l', and in this state 
are shewn by the middle circles at a«b6, ccvd. The 
images of the bases ab, ab of the cone are accurately 
united in the double base ab, ab 9 but the summits of the 
conical frustum remain separate, as seen at dv' 9 dd'. It is 
now the business of the eyes to unite these, or rather to 
make them appear as united. We have already seen how 
they are brought into relief when the summits are retracted 
so as to pass one another, as in Pig. 18. Let us therefore 
take the case shewn in Fig. 20, where the summits cd, cd 
are more distant than the bases ab, ab. The union of 
these figures is instantly effected, as shewn in Fig. 23, 
by converging the optic axes to points m and n succes- 
sively, and thus uniting c and c and D and d, and making 
these points of the summit plane appear at m and n, the 


points of convergence of the axes Lm, rto, and l», En. 
In like manner, every pair of points in the summit 

Fie. 2a 

plane, and in the sides Am,B» of the frustum, are con- 
verged to points corresponding to their distance from the 
base a b of the original solid frustum, from which the plane 


pictures abcd, abcd y were taken. We shall, therefore, 
see in relief the frustum of a cone whose section is Am«B. 
The theory of the stereoscope may be expressed and 
illustrated in the following manner, without any reference 
to binocular vision : — 

1. When a drawing of any object or series of objects is 
executed on a plane surface from one paint of sight, accord- 
ing to the principles of geometrical perspective, every point 
of its surface that is visible from the point of sight will be 
represented on the plane. 

2. If another drawing of the same object or series of 
objects is similarly executed on the same plane from a 
second point of sight, sufficiently distant from the first to 
make the two drawings separate without overlapping, every 
point of its surface visible from this second point of sight 
will also be represented on the plane, so that we shall have 
two different drawings of the object placed, at a short dis- 
tance from each other, on the same plane. 


/^ }*' f^ 


•^^...-'' / _^-^ ;: ^^- 



^^^^r 2 

* < ^^^^ 



\^ )lr' \^ 

Fig. 24. 

3. Calling these different points of the object 1, 2, 3, 4, 
&c, it will be seen from Fig. 24, in which l, e are the 


two points of sight, that the distances 1, 1, on the plane 
mn, of any pair of points in the two pictures representing 
the point 1 of the object, will be to the distance of any 
other pair 2, 2, representing the point 2, as the distances 
l'p, 2'p of the points of the object from the plane mn, mul- 
tiplied inversely by the distances of these points from the 
points of sight l, R, or the middle point o between them. 

4. If the sculptor, therefore, or the architect, or the me- 
chanist, or the surveyor, possesses two such pictures, either 
as drawn by a skilful artist or taken photographically, he 
can, by measuring the distances of every pair of points, ob- 
tain the relief or prominence of the original point, or its 
distance from the plane mn or ab ; and without the use of 
the stereoscope, the sculptor may model the object from 
its plane picture, and the distances of every point from a 
given plane. In like manner, the other artists may 
determine distances in buildings, in machinery, and in the 

5. If the distance of the points of sight is equal to the 
distance of the eyes l, r, the two plane pictures may be 
united and raised into relief by the stereoscope, and thus 
give the sculptor and other artists an accurate model, from 
which they will derive additional aid in the execution of 
their work. 

6. In stereoscopic vision, therefore, when we join the 
points 1, 1 by converging the optic axes to 1' in the line po, 
and the points 2, 2 by converging them to 2' in the same 
line, we place these points at the distances ol, o2, and 
see the relief, or the various differences of distance which 
the sculptor and others obtained by the method which we 
have described. 


7. Hence we infer, that if the stereoscopic vision of relief 
had never been thought of, the principles of the instrument 
are involved in the geometrical relief which is embodied in 
the two pictures of an object taken from two points of sight, 
and in the prominence of every part of it obtained geome- 




In uniting by the convergency of the optic axes two 
dissimilar pictures, as shewn in Fig. 18, the solid cone 
mn ought to appear at mn much nearer the observer than 
the pictures which compose it. I found, however, that it 
never took its right position in absolute space, the base 
mn of the solid seeming to rest on the same plane with 
its constituent pictures ab, a b, whether it was seen by 
converging the axes as in Fig. 18 or in Fig. 22. Upon 
inquiring into the reason of this I found that the disturb- 
ing cause was simply the simultaneous perception of other 
objects in the same field of view whose distance was known 
to the observer. 

In order to avoid all such influences I made experiments 
on large surfaces covered with similar plane figures, such as 
flowers or geometrical patterns upon paper-hangings and 
carpets. These figures being always at equal distances 
from each other, and almost perfectly equal and similar, 
the coalescence of any pair of them, effected by directing 
the optic axes to a point between the paper-hanging and 
the eye, is accompanied by the instantaneous coalescence of 


them all. If we, therefore, look at a papered wall without 
pictures, or doors, or windows, or even at a considerable por- 
tion of a wall, at the distance of three feet, and unite two of 
the figures, — two flowers, for example, at the distance of 
twelve inches from each other horizontally, the whole wall 
or visible portion of it will appear covered with flowers as 
before, but as each flower is now composed of two flowers 
united at the point of convergence of the optic axes, the 
whole papered wall with all its flowers will be seen sus- 
pended in the air at the distance of six inches from the 
observer ! At first the observer does not decide upon the 
distance of the suspended wall from himself. It generally 
advances slowly to its new position, and when it has taken 
its place it has a very singular character. The surface of 
it seems slightly curved. It has a silvery transparent 
aspect. It is more beautiful than the real paper, which is 
no longer seen, and it moves with the slightest motion of 
the head. If the observer, who is now three feet from the 
wall, retires from it, the suspended wall of flowers will fol- 
low him, moving farther and farther from the real wall, 
and also, but very slightly, farther and farther from the 
observer. When he stands still, he may stretch out his 
hand and place it on the other side of the suspended wall, 
and even hold a candle on the other side of it to satisfy 
himself that the ghost of the wall stands between the 
candle and himself. 

In looking attentively at this strange picture some of 
the flowers have the aspect of real flowers. In some the 
stalk retires from the plane of the picture. In others it 
rises from it. One leaf will come farther out than another. 
One coloured portion, red, for example, will be more pro- 


minent than the blue, and the flower will thus appear 
thicker and more solid, like a real flower compressed, and 
deviating considerably from the plane representation of it 
as seen by one eye. All this arises from slight and acci- 
dental differences of distance in similar or corresponding 
parts of the united figures. If the distance, for example, 
between two corresponding leaves is greater than the dis- 
tance between other two corresponding leaves, then the two 
first when united will appear nearer the eye than the other 
two, and hence the appearance of a flower in low relief, is 
given to the combination. 

In continuing our survey of the suspended image another 
curious phenomenon often presents itself. A part of one, or 
even two pieces of paper, and generally the whole length 
of them from the roof to the floor, will retire behind the 
general plane of the image, as if there were a recess in the 
wall, or rise above it as if there were a projection, thus 
displaying on a large scale the imperfection in the work- 
manship which otherwise it would have been difficult to 
discover. This phenomenon, or defect in the work, arises 
from the paper-hanger having cut off too much of the 
margin of one or more of the adjacent stripes or pieces, 
or leaving too much of it, so that, in the first case, when 
the two halves of a flower are joined together, part of 
the middle of the flower is left out, and hence, when this 
defective flower is united binocularly with the one on the 
right hand of it, and the one on the left hand united with 
the defective one, the united or corresponding portion being 
at a less distance, will appear farther from the eye than 
those parts of the suspended image which are composed of 
complete flowers. The opposite effect will be produced 


when the two portions of the flowers are not brought 
together, but separated by a small space. All these 
phenomena may be seen, though not so conveniently, with 
a carpet from which the furniture has been removed. We 
have, therefore, an accurate method of discovering defects 
in the workmanship of paper-hangers, carpet-makers, 
painters, and all artists whose profession it is to combine a 
series of similar patterns or figures to form an uniformly 
ornamented surface. The smallest defect in the similarity 
or equality of the figures or lines which compose a pattern, 
and any difference in the distance of single figures is 
instantly detected, and what is very remarkable a small 
inequality of distance in a line perpendicular to the axis of 
vision, or in one dimension of space, is exhibited in a mag- 
nified form at a distance coincident with the axis of vision, 
and in an opposite dimension of space. 

A little practice will enable the observer to realize and 
to maintain the singular binocular vision which replaces the 
real picture. 1 The occasional retention of the picture after 
one eye is closed, and even after both have been closed 
and quickly reopened, shews the influence of time over the 
evanescence as well as over the creation of this class of 
phenomena. On some occasions, a singular effect is pro- 
duced. When the flowers or figures on the paper are dis- 
tant six inches, we may either unite two six inches distant, 
or two twelve inches distant, and so on. In the latter case, 
when the eyes have been accustomed to survey the sus- 
pended picture, I have found that, after shutting or open- 
ing them, I neither saw the picture formed by the two 

i A sheet of Queen's heads may be advantageously used to accustom the eyes to 
(he union of similar figures. 


flowers twelve inches distant, nor the papered wall itself, 
but a picture formed by uniting all the flowers six inches 
distant ! The binocular centre (the point to which the 
optic axes converged, and consequently the locality of the 
picture) had shifted its place, and instead of advancing to 
the real wall and seeing it, it advanced exactly as much as 
to unite the nearest flowers, just as in a ratchet wheel, 
when the detent stops one tooth at a time ; or, to speak 
more correctly, the binocular centre advanced in order to 
relieve the eyes from their strain, and when the eyes were 
opened, it had just reached that point which corresponded 
with the union of the flowers six inches distant. 

We have already seen, as shewn in Fig. 22, that when 
we fix the binocular centre, that is, converge the optic axes 
on a point beyond the dissimilar pictures, so as to unite 
them, they rise into relief as perfectly as when the binocu- 
lar centre, as shewn in Fig. 18, is fixed between the pic- 
tures used and the eye. In like manner we may unite 
similar pictures, but, owing to the opacity of the wall and 
the floor, we cannot accomplish this with paper-hangings 
and carpets. The experiment, however, may be made with 
great effect by looking through transparent patterns cut out 
of paper or metal, such as those in zinc which are used for 
larders and other purposes. Particular kinds of trellis-work, 
and windows with small squares or rhombs of glass, may 
also be used, and, what is* still better, a screen might be 
prepared, by cutting out the small figures from one or more 
pieces of paper-hangings. The readiest means, however, of 
making the experiment, is to use the cane bottom of a chair, 
which often exhibits a succession of octagons with small 
luminous spaces between them. To do this, place the back 




of the chair upon a table, the height of the eye either when 
sitting or standing, so that the cane bottom with its lumi- 
nous pattern may have a vertical position, as shewn in 
Fig. 25, where mn is the real bottom of the chair with its 

d i* n 

■ ■■■■■ 


■imilMiimii M 


L 66 n 

Fie. 25. 

openings, which generally vary from half an inch to three- 
fourths. Supposing the distance to be half an inch, and the 
eyes, l, r, of the observer 1 2 inches distant from m n, let Lad, 
hbe be lines drawn through the centres of two of the open 
spaces a, b, and, rcc lines drawn through the centres of 
b and c, and meeting Lad, hbe aid and e, d being the bin- 
ocular centre to which the optic axes converge when we look 
at it through a and b, and c the binocular centre when we 
look at it through b and c. Now, the right eye, r, sees 
the opening b at d, and the left eye sees the opening a at 
d, so that the image at d of the opening consists of the 
similar images of a and b united, and so on with all the 


rest ; so that the observer at l, r no longer sees the real 
pattern mn, but an image of it suspended at,mw, three 
inches behind mn. If the observer now approaches mn, 
the image mn will approach to him, and if he recedes, 
mn will recede also, being 1£ inches behind mn when the 
observer is six inches before it, and twelve inches behind 
mn when the observer is forty-eight inches before it, the 
image mn moving from mn with a velocity one-fourth of 
that with which the observer recedes. 

The observer resuming the position in the figure where 
his eyes, l,r, are twelve inches distant from mn, let us 
consider the important results of this experiment. If he 
now grasps the cane bottom at mn, his thumbs pressing 
upon mn, and his fingers trying to grasp mn, he will then 
feel what he does not see, and see what he does not feel 1 
The real pattern is absolutely invisible at mn, where he 
feels it, and it stands fixed at mn. The fingers may be passed 
through and through between the real and the false image, 
and beyond it, — now seen on this side of it, now in the 
middle of it, and now on the other side of it. If we next 
place the palms of each hand upon mn, the real bottom of 
the chair, feeling it all over, the result will be the same. 
No knowledge derived from touch — no measurement of real 
distance — no actual demonstration from previous or subse- 
quent vision, that there is a real solid body at mn, and 
nothing at all at mn, will remove or shake the infallible 
conviction of the sense of sight that the cane bottom is at 
mn, and that dL or d& is its real distance from the ob- 
server. If the binocular centre be now drawn back to m n, 
the image seen at mn will disappear, and the real object be 
seen and felt at mn. If the binocular centre be brought 


further back to /, that is, if the optic axes are converged 
to a point nearer the observer than the object, as illustrated 
by Fig. 18, the cane bottom mn will again disappear, and 
will be seen at uv, as previously explained. 

This method of uniting small similar figures is more 
easily attained than that of doing it by converging the 
axes to a point between the eye and the object. It puts a 
very little strain upon the eyes, as we cannot thus unite 
figures the distance of whose centre is equal to or exceeds 
2£ inches, as appears from Fig. 22. 

In making these experiments, the observer cannot fail to 
be struck with the remarkable fact, that though the open- 
ings mn, mn, uv, have all the same apparent or angular 
magnitude, that is, subtend the same angle at the eye, 
viz., djjCy dne, yet those at mn appear larger, and those 
at uv smaller, than those at mn. If we cause the image 
mn to recede and approach to us, the figures in mn will 
invariably increase at they recede, and those in uv diminish 
as they approach the eye, and their visual magnitudes, as 
we may call them, will depend on the respective distances 
at which the observer, whether right or wrong in his esti- 
mate, conceives them to be placed, — a result which is finely 
illustrated by the different size of the moon when seen in 
the horizon and in the meridian. The fact now stated is 
a general one, which the preceding experiments demonstrate ; 
and though our estimate of magnitude thus formed is erro- 
neous, yet it is one which neither reason nor experience is 
able to correct. 

It is a curious circumstance, that, previous to the publi- 
cation of these experiments, no examples have been recorded 
of false estimates of the distance of near objects in conse- 



quence of the accidental binocular union of similar images. 
In a room where the paper-hangings have a small pattern, 
a short-sighted person might very readily turn his eyes on 
the wall when their axes converged to some point between 
him and the wall, which would unite one pair of the similar 
images, and in this case he would see the wall nearer him 
than the real wall, and moving with the motion of his 
head. In like manner a long-sighted person, with his opti- 
cal axes converged to a point beyond the wall, might see 
an image of the wall more distant, and moving with the 
motion of his head ; or a person who has taken too much 
wine, which often fixes the optical axes in opposition to the 
will, might, according to the nature of his sight, witness 
either of the illusions above mentioned. 

Illusions of both these kinds, however, have recently 
occurred. A friend to whom I had occasion to shew the 
experiments, and who is short-sighted, mentioned to me 
that he had on two occasions been greatly perplexed by the 
vision of these suspended images. Having taken too much 
wine, he saw the wall of a papered room suspended near 
him in the air ; and on another occasion, when kneeling, 
and resting his arms on a cane-bottomed chair, he had fixed 
his eyes on the carpet, which had accidentally united the 
two images of the open octagons, and thrown the image of 
the chair bottom beyond the plane on which he rested his 

After hearing my paper on this subject read at the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh, Professor Christison communicated 
to me the following interesting case, in which one of the phe- 
nomena above described was seen by himself : — " Some years 
ago," he observes, " when I resided in a house where several 


rooms are papered with rather formally recurring patterns, 
and one in particular with stars only, I used occasionally to 
be much plagued with the wall suddenly standing out upon 
me, and waving, as you describe, with the movements of the 
head. I was sensible that the cause was an error as to the 
point of union of the visual axes of the two eyes ; but I 
remember it sometimes cost me a considerable effort to 
rectify the error ; and I found that the best way was to 
increase still more the deviation in the first instance. As 
this accident occurred most frequently while I was recover- 
ing from a severe attack of fever, I thought my near-sighted 
eyes were threatened with some new mischief; and this 
opinion was justified in finding that, after removal to my 
present house, where, however, the papers have no very 
formal pattern, no such occurrence has ever taken place. 
The reason is now easily understood from your researches." 1 

Other cases of an analogous kind have been communi- 
cated to me ; and very recently M. Soret of Geneva, in 
looking through a trellis-work in metal stretched upon a 
frame, saw the phenomenon represented in Fig. 25, and 
has given the same explanation of it which I had published 
long before. 2 

Before quitting the subject of the binocular union of 
similar pictures, I must give some account of a series of 
curious phenomena which I observed by uniting the images 
of lines meeting at an angular point when the eye is placed 
at different heights above the plane of the paper, and at 
different distances from the angular point. 

i See Edin. Transactions, 1846, vol. xv. p 663, and Phil Mag., May 1847, vol 
zxx. p. 305. 
2 BibL Universale, October 1855, p. 136. 




Let ac, bc, Fig. 26, be two lines meeting at c, the 
plane passing through them being the plane of the paper, 
and let them be viewed by the eyes successively placed at 

Fio. 26. 

e"', e", £*, and e, at different heights in a plane, gmn, per- 
pendicular to the plane of the paper. Let R be the right 
eye, and l the left eye, and when at e"', let them be strained 
so as to unite the points a, b. The united image of these 
points will be seen at the binocular centre d'", and the 
united lines ac, bc, will have the position d'"c. In like 
manner, when the eye descends to e", e 7 , e, the united 
image d'"c will rise and diminish, taking the positions d"c, 
d'c, dc, till it disappears on the line cm, when the eyes 
reach m. If the eye deviates from the vertical plane gmn, 
the united image will also deviate from it, and is always in 
a plane passing through the common axis of the two eyes 
and the line g m. 




If at any altitude em, the eye advances towards acb in 
the line eg, the binocular centre d will also advance towards 
acb in the line eg, and the image dc will rise, and become 
shorter as its extremity r> moves along dg, and, after pass- 
ing the perpendicular to ge, it will increase in length. If 
the eye, on the other hand, recedes from acb in the line 
ge, the binocular centre d will also recede, and the image 
dc will descend to the plane cm, and increase in length. 

The preceding diagram is, for the purpose of illustration, 
drawn in a sort of perspective, and therefore does not give 
the true positions and lengths of the united images. This 
defect, however, is remedied in Fig. 27, where e, e', e", e"' 


is the middle point between the two eyes, the plane gmn 
being, as before, perpendicular to the plane passing through 
acb. Now, as the distance of the eye from g is supposed 
to be the same, and as ab is invariable as well as the 
distance between the eyes, the distance of the binocular 


centres o, d, d', d", d'", p from o, will also be invariable, 
and lie in a circle odp, whose centre is G, and whose 
radius is oo, the point o being determined by the for- 
mula oo = QD = ^ff * j -fjj Hence, in order to find the 
binocular centres d, rV, d", d'", &c, at any altitude, e, tf, &c, 
we have only to join eg, tf g, &c, and the points of inter- 
section d, d', &c, will be the binocular centres, and the 
lines dc, d'c, &c, drawn to c, will be the real lengths and 
inclinations of the united images of the lines ac, bc. 

When go is greater than gc there is obviously some 
angle a, or e" g m, at which d"c is perpendicular to gc. 

This takes place when Cos. a = j!^. When o coincides 
with c, the images cd, cd', &c, will have the same posi- 
tions and magnitudes as the chords of the altitudes a of 
the eyes above the plane gc. In this case the raised or 
united images will just reach the perpendicular when the 
eye is in the plane gcm, for since gc = go, Cos. a=1 
and a = 0. 

When the eye at any position, e" for example, sees the 
points a and b united at d", it sees also the whole lines 
ac, bc forming the image r>"c. The binocular centre 
must, therefore, run rapidly along the line d"c ; that is, 
the inclination of the optic axes must gradually diminish 
till the binocular centre reaches c, when all strain is re- 
moved. The vision of the image d"c, however, is carried 
on so rapidly that the binocular centre returns to D" with- 
out the eye being sensible of the removal and resumption 
of the strain which is required in maintaining a view of 
the united image d" c. If we now suppose a b to diminish, 
the binocular centre will advance towards G, and the length 


and inclination of the united images DC, D'c, &c, will 
diminish also, and vice versd. If the distance rl (Fig. 26) 
between the eyes diminishes, the binocular centre will 
retire towards e, and the length and inclination of the 
images will increase. Hence persons with eyes more or 
less distant will see the united images in different places 
and of different sizes, though the quantities a and ab be 

While the eyes at e" are running along the lines ac, 
bc, let us suppose them to rest upon the points ab equi- 
distant from c. Join a b y and from the point g, where ab 
intersects oc, draw the line #e", and find the point d' 
from the formula gd' = j ^V < R g ^ - Hence the two points a, b 
will be united at d\ and when the angle e"gc is such that 
the line joining d and c is perpendicular to gc, the line 
joining d"c will also be perpendicular to gc, the loci of the 
points D"cf , &c, will be in that perpendicular, and the image 
dc, seen by successive movements of the binocular centre 
from d" to c, will be a straight line. 

In the preceding observations we have supposed that 
the binocular centre d", &c, is between the eye and the 
lines ac, bc ; but the points a, c, and all the other points 
of these lines, may be united by fixing the binocular centre 
beyond ab. Let the eyes, for example, be at e" ; then if 
we unite a. b when the eyes converge to a point, A", (not 

seen in the Figure) beyond g, we shall have GA" = J j^zHf jj ; 
and if we join the point A" thus found and c, the line A'c 
will be the united image of ac and bc, the binocular centre 
ranging from a" to c, in order to see it as one line. In 
like manner, we may find the position and length of the 


image A'"c, A'c, and Ac, corresponding to the position of 
the eyes at e'"e and e. Hence all the united images of ac, 
bc, viz., ca'", ca", &c, will lie below the plane of abc, 
and extend beyond a vertical line no continued ; and they 
will grow larger and larger, and approximate in direction 
to cg as the eyes descend from e"' to m. When the eyes 
are near to M, and a little above the plane of abc, the line, 
when not carefully observed, will have the appearance of 
coinciding with cg, but stretching a great way beyond g. 
This extreme case represents the celebrated experiment 
with the compasses, described by Dr. Smith, and referred 
to by Professor Wheatstone. He took a pair of compasses, 
which may be represented by acb, ab being their points, 
ac, bc their legs, and c their joint ; and having placed his 
eyes about e, above their plane, he made the following 
experiment : — " Having opened the points of a pair of 
compasses somewhat wider than the interval of your eyes, 
with your arm extended, hold the head or joint in the ball 
of your hand, with the points outwards, and equidistant 
from your eyes, and somewhat higher than the joint. Then 
fixing your eyes upon any remote object lying in the plane 
that bisects the interval of the points, you will first per- 
ceive two pair of compasses, (each by being doubled with 
their inner legs crossing each other, not unlike the old 
shape of the letter W.) But by compressing the legs with 
your hand the two inner points will come nearer to each 
other ; and when they unite (having stopped the compres- 
sion) the two inner legs will also entirely coincide and 
bisect the angle under the outward ones, and will appear 
more vivid, thicker, and larger, than they do, so as to 
reach from your hand to the remotest object in view even 


in the horizon itself, if the points be exactly coincident." 1 
Owing to his imperfect apprehension of the nature of this 
phenomenon, Dr. Smith has omitted to notice that the 
united legs of the compasses lie below the plane of abc, 
and that they never can extend further than the binocular 
centre at which their points a and b are united. 

There is another variation of these experiments which 
possesses some interest, in consequence of its extreme case 
having been made the basis of a new theory of visible 
direction, by the late Dr. Wells. 2 Let us suppose the eyes 
of the observer to advance from e to n, and to descend 
along the opposite quadrant on the left hand of no, but 
not drawn in Fig. 27, then the united image of ac, bc will 
gradually descend towards cg, and become larger and 
larger. When the eyes are a very little above the plane of 
abc, and so far to the left hand of ab that ca points 
nearly to the left eye and cb to the right eye, then we 
have the circumstances under which Dr. Wells made the 
following experiment : — " If we hold two thin rules in 
such a manner that their sharp edges (ac, bc in Fig. 27) 
shall be in the optic axes, one in each, or rather a little 
below them, the two edges will be seen united in the common 
axis, (gc in Fig. 27 ;) and this apparent edge will seem of 
the same length with that of either of the real edges, when 
seen alone by the eye in the axis of which it is placed." 
This experiment, it will be seen, is the same with that of 
Dr. Smith, with this difference only, that the points of the 
compasses are directed towards the eyes. like Dr. Smith 
Dr. Wells has omitted to notice that the united image 

i Smith's Opticks, vol. ii. p. 388, § 977. 
9 Essay on Single Vision, £&, p. 44. 


rises above gh, and he commits the opposite error of Dr. 
Smith, in making the length of the united image too short 
If in this form of the experiment we fix the binocular 
centre beyond c, then the united images of ac, and bc 
descend below go, and vary in their length, and in their 
inclination to gc, according to the height of the eye above 
the plane of abc, and its distance from ab. 




Although the lenticular stereoscope has every advantage 
that such an instrument can possess, whether it is wanted 
for experiments on binocular vision — for assisting the artist 
by the reproduction of objects in relief or for the purposes 
of amusement and instruction, yet there are other forms of 
it which have particular properties, and which may be con- 
structed without the aid of the optician, and of materials 
within the reach of the humblest inquirers. The first of 
these j 

1. The Tubular Reflecting Stereoscope. 

In this form of the instrument, shewn in Fig. 28, the 
pictures are seen by reflexion from two specula or prisms 
placed at an angle of 90°, as in Mr. Wheatstone's instrument. 
In other respects the two instruments are essentially different. 

In Mr. Wheatstone's stereoscope he employs two mirrors, 
each four inches square — that is, he employs thirty-two 
square inches of reflecting surface, and is therefore under 
the necessity of employing glass mirrors, and making a 
clumsy, unmanageable, and unscientific instrument, with all 
the imperfections which we have pointed out in a preceding 
chapter. It is not easy to understand why mirrors of such 


a size should have been adopted. The reason of their being 
made of common looking-glass is, that metallic or prismatic 
reflectors of such a size would have been extremely expensive. 
It is obvious, however, from the slightest consideration, 
that reflectors of such a size are wholly unnecessary, and 
that one square inch of reflecting surface, in place of thirty- 
two, is quite sufficient for uniting the binocular pictures. 
We can, therefore, at a price as low as that of the 4-inch 
glass reflectors, use mirrors of speculum metal, steel, or even 
silver, or rectangular glass prisms, in which the images are 
obtained by total reflexion. In this way the stereoscope 
becomes a real optical instrument, in which the reflexion is 
made from surfaces single and perfectly flat, as in the second 
reflexion of the Newtonian telescope and the microscope of 
Amici, in which pieces of looking-glass were never used. By 
thus diminishing the reflectors, we obtain a portable tubular 
instrument occupying nearly as little room as the lenticular 
stereoscope, as will be seen from Fig. 28, where abcd is 

L B 

Fig. 28. 

a tube whose diameter is equal to the largest size of one 
of the binocular pictures which we propose to use, the left- 
eye picture being placed at CD, and the right-eye one at ab. 
If they are transparent, they will be illuminated through 
paper or ground glass, and if opaque, through openings in 
the tube. The image of ab, reflected to the left eye l from 
the small mirror mn, and that of CD to the right eye r 



from the mirror op, will be united exactly as in Mr. Wheat- 
stone's instrument already described. The distance of the 
two ends, n, p, of the mirrors should be a little greater than 
the smallest distance between the two eyes. If we wish to 
magnify the picture, we may use two lenses, or substitute 
for the reflectors a totally reflecting glass prism, in which 
one or two of its surfaces are made convex. 1 

2. The Single Reflecting Stereoscope. 

This very simple instrument, which, however, answers 
only for symmetrical figures, such as those shewn at A and 
b, which must be either two right-eye or two left-eye pic- 
tures, is shewn in Fig. 29. A single reflector, mn, which 

may be either a piece of glass, or a piece of mirror-glass, or a 
small metallic speculum, or a rectangular prism, is placed 

> We may use also the lens prism, which I proposed many year* ago in the 
Edinburgh PhilotophicalJournal. 



at mn. If we look into it with the left eye l, we see, by 
reflexion from its surface at c, a reverted image, or a right- 
eye picture of the left-eye picture B, which, when seen in 
the direction lca, and combined with the figure a, seen 
directly with the right eye R, produces a raised cone ; but 
if we turn the reflector i* round, so that the right eye may 
look into it, and combine a reverted image of a, with the 
figure B seen directly with the left eye l, we shall see a 
hollow cone. As bc + cl is greater than ra, the reflected 
image will be slightly less in size than the image seen 
directly, but the difference is not such as to produce any 
perceptible effect upon the appearance of the hollow or the 
raised cone. By bringing the picture viewed by reflexion 
a little nearer the reflector mn, the two pictures may be 
made to have the same apparent magnitude. 

If we substitute for the single reflector mn, two reflectors 
such as are shewn at m, n, Fig. 30, or a prism p, which 

Fig. 30. 

gives two internal reflexions, we shall have a general stereo- 
scope, which answers for landscapes and portraits. 



The reflectors m, n or p may be fitted up in a conical tube, 
which has an elliptical section to accommodate two figures 
at its farther end, the major axis of the ellipse being parallel 
to the line joining the two eyes. 

3. The Double Reflecting Stereoscope. 

This instrument differs from the preceding in having a 
single reflector, mn, m'n', for each eye, as shewn in Fig. 31, 

and the effect of this is to exhibit, at the same time, the 
raised and the hollow cone. The image of b, seen by re- 
flexion from mn at the point c, is combined with the picture 
of a, seen directly by the right eye R, and forms a hollow 
cone ; while the image of a, seen by reflexion from m'n' at 
the point c / , is combined with the picture of b, seen directly 
by the left eye l, and forms a raised cone. 



Another form of the double reflecting stereoscope is shewn 
in Fig. 32, which differs from that shewn in Fig. 31 in 

Fig. 32. 

the position of the two reflectors and of the figures to be 
united. The reflecting faces of the mirrors are turned out- 
wards, their distance being less than the distance between 
the eyes, and the effect of this is to exhibit at the same 
time the raised and the hollow cone, the hollow cone being 
now on the right-hand side. 

If in place of two right or two left eye pictures, as shewn 
in Figs. 29, 31, and 32, we use one right eye and one left 
eye picture, and combine the reflected image of the one 
with the reflected image of the other, we shall have a 
raised cone with the stereoscope, shewn in Fig. 31, and a 
hollow cone with the one in Fig. 32. 

The double reflecting stereoscope, in both its forms, is a 
general instrument for portraits and landscapes, and thus 
possesses properties peculiar to itself. 




The reflectors may be glass or metallic specula, or total 
reflexion prisms. 

4. The Toted Reflexion Stereoscope. 

This form of the stereoscope is a very interesting one, 
and possesses valuable properties. It requires only a small 
prism and one diagram, or picture of the solid, as seen by 
one eye ; the other diagram, or picture which is to be 
combined with it, being created by total reflexion from the 
base of the prism. This instrument is shewn in Fig. 33, 

ij » 

where D is the picture of a cone as seen by the left eye l, 
and abc a prism, whose base bc is so large, that when the 
eye is placed close to it, it may see, by reflexion, the whole 
of the diagram d. The angles abc, acb must be equal, 
but may be of any magnitude. Great accuracy in the 
equality of the angles is not necessary ; and a prism con- 
structed, by a lapidary, out of a fragment of thick plate- 


glass, the face bc being one of the surfaces of the plate, 
will answer the purpose. When the prism is placed at a, 
Fig. 34, at one end of a conical tube ld, and the diagram 

d at the other end, in a cap, which can be turned round 
so as to have the line mn, Fig. 33, which passes through 
the centre of the base and summit of the cone parallel to 
the line joining the two eyes, the instrument is ready for 
use. The observer places his left eye at l, and views with 
it the picture D, as seen by total reflexion from the 
base bo of the prism, Figs. 33 and 35, while with his 
right eye k, Fig. 33, he views the real picture directly. 
The first of these pictures being the reverse of the second d, 
like all pictures formed by one reflexion, we thus combine 


two dissimilar pictures into a raised cone, as in the figure, 
or into a hollow one, if the picture at d is turned round 
180°. If we place the images of two diagrams, one 
like one of those at a, Fig. 31, and the other like the 
one at b, vertically above one another, we shall then see, 
at the same time, the raised and the hollow cone, as pro- 
duced in the lenticular stereoscope by the three diagrams, 
two like those in Fig. 31, and a third like the one at a. 
When the prism is good, the dissimilar image, produced 
by the two refractions at b and c, and the one reflexion 
at e, is, of course, more accurate than if it had been 
drawn by the most skilful artist ; and therefore this 
form of the stereoscope has in this respect an advantage 
over every other in which two dissimilar figures, executed 
by art, are necessary. In consequence of the length of 
the reflected pencil db + be + ec + cl being a little 
greater than the direct pencil of rays dr, the two images 
combined have not exactly the same apparent magnitude ; 
but the difference is not perceptible to the eye, and a 
remedy could easily be provided were it required. 

If the conical tube ld is held in the left hand, the left 
eye must be used, and if in the right hand the right eye 
must be used, so that the hand may not obstruct the 
direct vision of the drawing by the eye which does not 
look through the prism. The cone ld must be turned 
round slightly in the hand till the line mn joining the 
centre and apex of the figure is parallel to the line joining 
the two eyes. The same line must be parallel to the plane 
of reflexion from the prism ; but this parallelism is secured 
by fixing the prism and the drawing. 

It is scarcely necessary to state that this stereoscope is 


seen before the rotation of the figure commenced. If 
the pyramid had been square, the raised would have 
passed into the hollow pyramid by rotations of 45° each. 
If it had been rectangular, the change would have been 
effected by rotations of 90°. If the space between the 
two circular sections of the cone in Fig. 31 had been 
uniformly shaded, or if lines had been drawn from every 
degree of the one circle to every corresponding degree in 
the other, in place of from every 90th degree, as in the 
Figure, the raised cone would have gradually diminished 
in height, by the rotation of the figure, till it became flat, 
after a rotation of 90° ; and by continuing the rotation it 
would have become hollow, and gradually reached its maxi- 
mum depth after a revolution of 1 80°. 

5. The Single-Prism Stereoscope. 

Although the idea of uniting the binocular pictures by 
a single prism applied to one eye, and refracting one of 
the pictures so as to place it upon the other seen directly 
by the other eye, or by a prism applied to each eye, 
could hardly have escaped the notice of any person study- 
ing the subject, yet the experiment was, so far as I 
know, first made and published by myself. I found two 
prisms quite unnecessary, and therefore abandoned the 
use of them, for reasons which will be readily appreciated. 
This simple instrument is shewn in Fig. 37, where a, b 
are the dissimilar pictures, and p a prism with such a 
refracting angle as is sufficient to lay the image of a upon b, 
as seen by the right eye. If we place a second prism before 
the eye r, we require it only to have half the refracting 
angle of the prism p, because each prism now refracts 




the picture opposite to it only half way between a and B, 
where they are united. This, at first sight, appears to be 
an advantage, for as there must always be a certain degree 


Fio. 37. 

of colour produced by a single prism, the use of two prisms, 
with half the refracting angle, might be supposed to reduce 
the colour one-half. But while the colour produced by 
each prism is thus reduced, the colour over the whole picture 
is the same. Each luminous edge with two prisms has 
both red and blue tints, whereas with one prism each lumi- 
nous edge has only one colour, either red or blue. If the 
picture is very luminous these colours will be seen, but in 
many of the finest opaque pictures it is hardly visible. In 
order, however, to diminish it, the prism should be made 
of glass with the lowest dispersive power, or with rock 
crystal. A single plane surface, ground and polished by a 
lapidary, upon the edge of a piece of plate glass, a little 


larger than the pupil of the eye, will give a prism sufficient 
for every ordinary purpose. Any person may make one 
in a few minutes for himself, by placing a little bit of 
good window glass upon another piece inclined to it at 
the proper angle, and inserting in the angle a drop of 
fluid. Such a prism will scarcely produce any perceptible 

If a single-prism reflector is to be made perfect, we 
have only to make it achromatic, which could be done 
extempore, by correcting the colour of the fluid prism 
by another fluid prism of different refractive and dispersive 

With a good achromatic prism the single-prism stereo- 
scope is a very fine instrument ; and no advantage of any 
value could be gained by using two achromatic prisms. In 
the article on New Stereoscopes, published in the Trans- 
actions of the Royal Society of Arts for 1849, and in 
the Philosophical Magazine for 1852, I have stated in a 
note that / believed that Mr. Wheatstone had used two 
achromatic prisms. This, however, was a mistake, as 
already explained, 1 for such an instrument was never made, 
and has never been named in any work previous to 1849, 
when it was mentioned by myself in the note above 
referred to. 

If we make a double prism, or join two, as shewn at 
p, p' in Fig. 38, and apply it to two dissimilar figures 
a, b, one of which is the reflected image of the other, so 
that with the left eye l and the prism p we place the 
refracted image of a upon b, as seen by the right eye b, we 
shall see a raised cone, and if with the prism p' we place 

1 See Chap. i. pp. 33-36. 


the image of b upon a we shall see a hollow cone. If we 
place the left eye l at o, behind the common base of the 



prism, we shall see with one-half of the pupil the hollow 
cone and with the other half the raised cone. 

6. The Opera-Glass Stereoscope. 

As the eyes themselves form a stereoscope to those who 
have the power of quickly converging their axes to points 
nearer than the object which they contemplate, it might 
have been expected that the first attempt to make a 
stereoscope for those who do not possess such a power, 
would have been to supply them with auxiliary eyeballs 
capable of combining binocular pictures of different sizes at 
different distances from the eye. This, however, has not 
been the case, and the stereoscope for this purpose, which 
we are about to describe, is one of the latest of its forms. 

In Fig. 39, mn is a small inverting telescope, consisting 
of two convex lenses iff, n, placed at the sum of their focal 




distances, and op another of the same kind. When the 
two eyes, b, l, look through the two telescopes directly at 
the dissimilar pictures a, b, they will see them with perfect 

Fig. 39. 

distinctness ; but, by the slightest inclination of the axes of 
the telescopes, the two images can be combined, and the 
stereoscopic effect immediately produced. With the dissi- 
milar pictures in the diagram a hollow cone is produced ; 


Fio. 40. 

but if we look at b with the telescope mV, as in Fig. 40, 
and at a' with o'p', a raised cone will be seen. With the 
usual binocular slides containing portraits or landscapes, the 


pictures are seen in relief by combining the right-eye one 
with the left-eye one. 

The instrument now described is nothing more than a 
double opera-glass, which itself forms a good stereoscope. 
Owing, however, to the use of a concave eye-glass, the field 
of view is very small, and therefore a convex glass, which 
gives a larger field, is greatly to be preferred. 

The little telescopes, mn, op, may be made one and a half 
or even one inch long, and fitted up, either at a fixed or with 
a variable inclination, in a pyramidal box, like the lenti- 
cular stereoscope, and made equally portable. One of these 
instruments was made for me some years ago by Messrs. 
Home and Thornthwaite, and I have described it in the 
North British Review 1 as having the properties of a Bin- 
ocular Cameoscope, and of what has been absurdly called a 
Pseudoscope, seeing that every inverting eye-piece and every 
stereoscope is entitled to the very same name. 

The little telescope may be made of one piece of glass, 
convex at each end, or concave at the eye-end if a small field 
is not objectionable, — the length of the piece of glass, in 
the first case, being equal to the sum, and, in the second 
case, to the difference of the focal lengths of the virtual 
lenses at each end. 2 

7. The Eye-Glass Stethoscope. 

As it is impossible to obtain, by the ocular stereoscope, 
pictures in relief from the beautiful binocular slides which 
are made in every part of the world for the lenticular stereo- 

i For 1852, vol. xvii. p. 200. 

2 These solid telescopes may be made achromatic by cementing concave lenses 
of flint glass upon each end, or of crown glass if they are made of flint glass. 


scope, it is very desirable to have a portable stereoscope 
which can be carried safely in our purse, for the purpose of 
examining stereoscopically all such binocular pictures. 

If placed together with their plane sides in contact, a 
plano-convex lens, ab, and a plano-concave one, cd, of the 
same glass and the same focal length, will resemble a thick 
watch-glass, and on looking through them, we shall see 
objects of their natural size and in their proper place ; but 
if we slip the concave lens, cd, to a side, as shewn in Fig. 41, 

Fig. 41. 

we merely displace the image of the object which we view, 
and the displacement increases till the centre of the concave 
lens comes to the margin of the convex one. We thus 
obtain a variable prism, by means of which we can, with 
the left eye, displace one of the binocular pictures, and lay 
it upon the other, as seen by the right eye. We may use 
semi-lenses or quarters of lenses, and we may make them 
achromatic or nearly so if we desire it. Double convex and 
double concave lenses may also be used, and the motion of 
the concave one regulated by a screw. In one which I con- 
stantly use, the concave lens slides in a groove over a convex 
quarter lens. 

By employing two of these variable prisms, we have an 
Universal Stereoscope for uniting pictures of various sizes 
and at various distances from each other, and the prisms may 
be placed in a pyramidal box, like the lenticular stereoscope. 


8. The Reading-Gla&s Stereoscope. 
If we take a reading-giass whose diameter is not less than 
two inches and three quarters, and look through it with 
both eyes at a binocular picture in which the right-eye view 
is on the left hand, and the left-eye view on the right 
hand, as in the ocular stereoscope, we shall see each picture 
doubled, and the degree of separation is proportional to the 
distance of the picture from the eye. If the distance of the 
binocular pictures from each other is small, the two middle 
images of the four will be united when their distance from 
the lens is not very much greater than its focal length. 
With a reading-glass 4 J inches in diameter, with a focal 
length of two feet, binocular pictures, in which the distance 
of similar parts is nine inches, are united without any exer- 
tion of the eyes at the distance of eight feet. With the 
same reading-glass, binocular pictures, at the usual distance 
of 2J inches, will be united at the distance of 2J or even 
2£ feet. If we advance the reading-glass when the distance 
is 2 or 3 feet, the picture in relief will be magnified, but, 
though the observer may not notice it, the separated images 
are now kept united by a slight convergency of the optic" 
axes. Although the pictures are placed so far beyond the 
anterior focus of the lens, they are exceedingly distinct. 
The distinctness of vision is sufficient, at least to long- 
sighted eyes, when the pictures are placed within 16 or 18 
inches of the observer, that is, 6 or 8 inches nearer the eye 
than the anterior focus of the lens. In this case we can 
maintain the union of the pictures only when we begin to 
view them at a distance of 2 J or 3 feet, and then gradually 
advance the lens within 16 or 18 inches of the pictures. 


At considerable distances, the pictures are most magnified 
by advancing the lens while the head of the observer is 

9. The Camera Stereoscope. 

The object of this instrument is to unite the transient 
pictures of groups of persons or landscapes, as delineated 
in two dissimilar pictures, on the ground glass of a bin- 
ocular camera. If we attach to the back of the camera a 
lenticular stereoscope, so that the two pictures on the ground 
glass occupy the same place as its usual binocular slides, 
we shall see the group of figures in relief under every change 
of attitude, position, and expression. The two pictures may 
be formed in the air, or, more curiously still, upon a wreath 
of smoke. As the figures are necessarily inverted in the 
camera, they will remain inverted by the lenticular and 
every other instrument but the opera-glass stereoscope, 
which inverts the object By applying it therefore to the 
camera, we obtain an instrument by which the photographic 
artist can make experiments, and try the effect which will 
be produced by his pictures before he takes them. He 
can thus select the best forms of groups of persons and 
of landscapes, and thus produce works of great interest 
and value. 

10. The Chromatic Stereoscope. 

The chromatic stereoscope is a form of the instrument in 
which relief or apparent solidity is given to a single figure 
with different colours delineated upon a plane surface. 

If we look with both eyes through a lens l l, Fig. 42, 
about 2 J inches in diameter or upwards, at any object having 

CHAP. vn. 



colours of different degrees of refrangibility, such as the 
coloured boundary lines on a map, a red rose among green 
leaves and on a blue background, or any scarlet object what- 

Fio. 42. 

ever upon a violet ground, or in general any two simple colours 
not of the same degree of refrangibility, the differently 
coloured parts of tike object will appear at different distances 
from the observer. 

Let us suppose the rays to be red and violet, those which 
differ most in refrangibility. If the red rays radiate from 
the anterior focus b, or red rays of the lens l i^ they will 
emerge parallel, and enter the eye at m ; but the violet rays 
radiating from the same focus, being more refrangible, will 
emerge in a state of convergence, as shewn at mv y nv, the 
red rays being mr, nr. The part of the object, therefore, 
from which the red rays come, will appear nearer to the 
observer than the parts from which the violet rays come, 
and if there are other colours or rays of intermediate re- 
frangibilities, they will appear to come from intermediate 


If we place a small red and violet disc, like the smallest 
wafer, beside one another, so that the line joining their 
centres is perpendicular to the line joining the eyes, and 
suppose that rays from both enter the eyes with their opti- 
cal axes parallel, it is obvious that the distance between the 
violet images on each retina will be less than the distance 
between the red images, and consequently the eyes will re- 
quire to converge their axes to a nearer point in order to 
unite the red images, than in order to unite the violet 
images. The red images will therefore appear at this nearer 
point of convergence, just as, in the lenticular stereoscope, 
the more distant pair of points in the dissimilar images 
appear when united nearer to the eye. By the two eyes 
alone, therefore, we obtain a certain, though a small degree 
of relief from colours. With the lens ll, however, the 
effect is greatly increased, and we have the sum of the two 

From these observations, it is manifest that the reverse 
effect must be produced by a concave lens, or by the com- 
mon stereoscope, when two coloured objects are employed 
or united. The bine part of the object will be seen nearer 
the observer, and the red part of it more remote. It is, 
however, a curious fact, and one which appeared difficult to 
explain, that in the stereoscope the colour-relief was not 
brought out as might have been expected. Sometimes the 
xed was nearest the eye, and sometimes the blue, and some- 
times the object appeared without any relief. The cause of 
this is, that the colour-relief given by the common stereo- 
scope was the opposite of that given by the eye, and it was 
only the difference of these effects that ought to have been 
observed ; and though the influence of the eyes was an 


inferior one, it often acted alone, and sometimes ceased to 
act at all, in virtue of that property of vision by which we 
see only with one eye when we are looking with two. 

In the chromatic stereoscope, Fig. 42, the intermediate 
part mn of the lens is of no use, so that out of the margin of 
a lens upwards of 2 J inches in diameter, we may cut a dozen 
of portions capable of making as many instruments. These 
portions, however, a little larger only than the pupil of the 
eye, must be placed in the same position as in Fig. 42. 

All the effects which we have described are greatly in- 
creased by using lenses of highly-dispersing flint glass, oil 
of cassia, and other fluids of a great dispersive power, and 
avoiding the use of compound colours in the objects placed 
in the stereoscope. 

It is an obvious result of these observations, that in 
painting, and in coloured decorations of all kinds, the red 
or less refrangible colours should be given to the prominent 
parts of the object to be represented, and the blue or more 
refrangible colours to the background and the parts of the 
objects that are to retire from the eye. 

11. The Microscope Stereoscope. 

The lenticular form of the stereoscope is admirably fitted 
for its application to small and microscopic objects. The 
first instruments of this kind were constructed by myself 
with quarter-inch lenses, and were 3 inches long and only 
1 and 1 \ deep. 1 They may be carried in the pocket, and 
exhibit all the properties of the instrument to the greatest 
advantage. The mode of constructing and using the instru- 
ment is precisely the same as in the common stereoscope ; 

i Phil Mag., Jan. 1852, vol. iii. p. 19. 



but in taking the dissimilar pictures, we must use either a 
small binocular camera, which will give considerably mag- 
nified representations of the objects, or we must procure them 
from the compound microscope. The pictures may be ob- 
tained with a small single camera, by first taking one pic- 
ture, and then shifting the object in the focus of the lens, 
through a space corresponding with the binocular angle. To 
find this space, which we may call x, make d the distance 
of the object from the lens, n the number of times it is 
to be magnified, or the distance of the image behind the 
lens, and d the distance of the eyes ; then we shall have 

nd :d = i> :x, and x =-, 
that is, the space is equal to the distance between the eyes 
divided by the magnifying power. 

With the binocular microscope of Professor Riddell, 1 and 
the same instrument as improved by M. Nachet, binocular 
pictures are obtained directly by having them drawn, as 
Professor Riddell suggests, by the camera lucida, but it 
would be preferable to take them photographically. 

Portraits for lockets or rings might be put into a very 
small stereoscope, by folding the one lens back upon the 

1 American Journal of Science, 1852, vol xt. p. 68. 




However perfect be the stereoscope which we employ, 
the effect which it produces depends upon the accuracy 
with which the binocular pictures are prepared. The 
pictures required for the stereoscope may be arranged in 
four classes : — 

1. The representations of geometrical solids as seen with 
two eyes. 

2. Portraits, or groups of portraits, taken from living 
persons or animals. 

3. Landscapes, buildings, and machines or instruments. 

4. Solids of all kinds, the productions of nature or of 

Geometrical Solids. 
Representations of geometrical solids, were, as we have 
already seen, the only objects which for many years were 
employed in the reflecting stereoscope. The figures thus 
used are so well known that it is unnecessary to devote 
much space to their consideration. For ordinary purposes 
they may be drawn by the hand, and composed of squares, 
rectangles, and circles, representing quadrangular pyramids, 
truncated, or terminating in a point, cones, pyramids with 
polygonal bases, or more complex forms in which raised 



pyramids or cones rise out of quadrangular or conical hol- 
lows. All these figures may be drawn by the hand, and 
will produce solid forms sufficiently striking to illustrate 
the properties of the stereoscope, though not accurate repre- 
sentations of any actual solid seen by binocular vision. 

If one of the binocular pictures is not equal to the other 
in its base or summit, and if the lines of the one are made 
crooked, it is curious to observe how the appearance of the 
resulting solid is still maintained and varied. 

The following method of drawing upon a plane the dis- 
similar representations of solids, will give results in the 
stereoscope that are perfectly correct : — 

-- N 

Let l, b, Fig. 43, be the left and right eye, and a the 
middle point between them. Let mn be the plane on 


which an object or solid whose height is cb is to be drawn. 
Through B draw lb, meeting hk in c ; then if the object 
is a solid, with its apex at b, cc will be the distance of its 
apex from the centre o of its base, as seen by the left eye. 
When seen by the right eye b, cd will be its distance, c' 
lying on the left side of c. Hence if the figure is a cone, 
the dissimilar pictures of it will be two circles, in one of 
which its apex is placed at the distance cc from its centre, 
and in the other at the distance cc' on the other side of the 
centre. When these two plane figures are placed in the 
stereoscope, they will, when combined, represent a raised 
cone when the points c, c' are nearer one another than the 
centres of the circles representing the cone's base, and a 
hollow cone when the figures are interchanged. 

If we call E the distance between the two eyes, and 
h the height of the solid, we shall have ab : h = y : cc, 

^ cc = jrr& or iTP vhich. ™& # ve va ^ e result 8 m 
the following table, E being 2£, and AC 8 inches : — 

Height of object. 

BC = A AB = AC — k CC 


1 7 0.179 

2 6 0.4166 

3 6 0.75 

4 4 1.25 

5 3 2.083 

6 2 3.75 

7 1 8.76 

8 Infinite. 

If we now converge the optic axes to a point 6, and 
wish to ascertain the value of cc, which will give dif- 


ferent depths, d, of the hollow solids corresponding to 
different values of c6, we snail have a 6 : | = d : c<? 9 and 
cc ' = 5T& w ^ c ^> niaking a o= 8 inches, as before, will 
give the following results : — 


0b = d 

Ab=AO + d 






































The values of h and d when cc, cc' are known, will be 
found from the formulae h = ^^, and d = 2AB E °«' . 
As cc is always equal to cc' in each pair of figures or dis- 
similar pictures, the depth of the hollow cone will always 
appear much greater than the height of the raised one. 
When cc = c<f = 0-75, hid = 3:12. When cc = cd 
= 04166, h : d = 2 : 4, and when cc = cc? = 0-139, 
h:d = 0-8:1-0. 

When the solids of which we wish to have binocular 
pictures are symmetrical, the one picture is the reflected 
image of the other, or its reverse, so that when we have 
drawn the solid as seen by one eye, we may obtain the other 


by copying its reflected image, or by simply taking a copy 
of it as seen through the paper. 

When the geometrical solids are not symmetrical, their dis- 
similar pictures must be taken photographically from models, 
in the same manner as the dissimilar pictures of other solids. 

Portraits of Living Persons or Animals. 

Although it is possible for a clever artist to take two 
portraits, the one as seen by his right, and the other as seen 
by his left eye, yet, owing to the impossibility of fixing the 
sitter, it would be a very difficult task. A bust or statue 
would be more easily taken by fixing two apertures 2 \ inches 
distant, as the two points of sight, but even in this case 
the result would be imperfect. The photographic camera 
is the only means by which living persons and statues can 
be represented by means of two plane pictures to be combined 
by the stereoscope ; and but for the art of photography, this 
instrument would have had a very limited application. 

It is generally supposed that photographic pictures, 
whether in Daguerreotype or Talbotype, are accurate repre- 
sentations of the human face and form, when the sitter sits 
steadily, and the artist knows the resources of his art. Quis 
solem essefalsum dicere audeat ? says the photographer, in 
rapture with his art. Solem essefalsum dicere audeo, re- 
plies the man of science, in reference to the hideous repre- 
sentations of humanity which proceed from the studio of 
the photographer. The sun never errs in the part which 
he has to perform. The sitter may sometimes contribute 
his share to the hideousness of his portrait by involuntary 
nervous motion, but it is upon the artist or his art that the 
blame must be laid. 


If the single portrait of an individual is a misrepresenta- 
tion of his form and expression, the combination of two such 
pictures into a solid must be more hideous still, not merely 
because the error in form and expression is retained or 
doubled, but because the source of error in the single por- 
trait is incompatible with the application of the stereoscopic 
principle in giving relief to the plane pictures. The art of 
stereoscopic portraiture is in its infancy, and we shall there- 
fore devote some space to the development of its true prin- 
ciples and practice. 

In treating of the images of objects formed by lenses and 
mirrors with spherical surfaces, optical writers have satisfied 
themselves by shewing that the images of straight lines so 
formed are conic sections, elliptical, parabolic, or hyperbolic. 
I am not aware that any writer has treated of the images of 
solid bodies, and of their shape as affected by the size of the 
lenses or mirrors by which they are formed, or has even 
attempted to shew how a perfect image of any object can 
be obtained. We shall endeavour to supply this defect. 

In a previous chapter we have explained the manner in 
which images are formed by a small aperture, h, in the side, 
mn, of a camera, or in the window-shutter of a dark room. 
The rectangles br, 6V, and 6V, are images of the object 
eb, according as they are received at the same distance 
from the lens as the object, or at a less or a greater distance, 
the size of the image being to that of the object as their 
respective distances from the hole h. Pictures thus taken 
are accurate representations of the object, whether it be 
lineal, superficial, or solid, as seen from or through the hole 
h ; and if we could throw sufficient light upon the object, 
or make the material which receives the image very sensi- 



tive, we should require no other camera for giving us photo- 
graphs of all sizes. The only source of error which we can 
conceive, is that which may arise from the inflexion of light, 

Fig. 44. 

but we believe that it would exercise a small influence, if 
any, and it is only by experiment that its effect can be 

The Rev. Mr. Egerton and I have obtained photographs 
of a bust, in the course of ten minutes, with a very faint sun, 
and through an aperture less than the hundredth of an inch ; 
and I have no doubt that when chemistry has furnished us 
with a material more sensitive to light, a camera without 
lenses, and with only a pin-hole, will be the favourite in- 
strument of the photographer. At present, no sitter could 
preserve his composure and expression during the number 
of minutes which are required to complete the picture. 

But though we cannot use this theoretical camera, we 
may make some approximation to it. If we make the hole 
H a quarter of an inch, the pictures br> &c., will be faint 
and indistinct ; but by placing a thin lens a quarter of an 


inch in diameter in the hole h, the distinctness of the pic- 
ture will be restored, and, from the introduction of so much 
light, the photograph may be completed in a sufficiently 
short time. The lens should be made of rock crystal, which 
has a small dispersive power, and the ratio of curvature of its 
surfaces should be as six to one, the flattest side being turned 
to the picture. In this way there will be very little colour 
and spherical aberration, and no error produced by any striae 
or want of homogeneity in the glass. 

As the hole h is nearly the same as the greatest opening 
of the pupil, the picture which is formed by the enclosed 
lens will be almost identical with the one we see in mono- 
cular vision, which is always the most perfect representation 
of figures in relief. 

With this approximately perfect camera, let us now com- 
pare the expensive and magnificent instruments with which 
the photographer practises his art. We shall suppose his 
camera to have its lens or lenses with an aperture of only three 
inches, as shewn at l e in Fig. 45. If we cover the whole 

Fid. 45. 

lens, or reduce its aperture to a quarter of an inch, as shewn 
at a, we shall have a correct picture of the sitter. Let us 
now take other four pictures of the same person, by re- 


moving the aperture successively to b, c, d, and e : It is 
obvious that these pictures will all differ very perceptibly 
from each other. In the picture obtained through d, we 
shall see parts on the left side of the head which are not 
seen in the picture through c, and in the one through c, 
parts on the right side of the head not seen through d. In 
short, the pictures obtained through c and d are accurate 
dissimilar pictures, such as we have in binocular vision, (the 
distance cd being 2 J inches,) and fitted for the stereoscope. 
In like manner, the pictures through b and e will be different 
from the preceding, and different from one another. In the 
one through 6, we shall see parts below the eyebrows, below 
the nose, below the upper lip, and below the chin, which 
are not visible in the picture through e, nor in those through 
c and d ; while in the picture through e, we shall see parts 
above the brow, and above the upper lip, &c, which are not 
seen in the pictures through b, c, and d. In whatever part 
of the lens, lb, we place the aperture, we obtain a picture 
different from that through any other part, and therefore it 
follows, that with a lens whose aperture is three inches, the 
photographic picture is a combination of about one hundred 
and thirty dissimilar pictures of the sitter, the similar parts 
of which are net coincident ; or to express it in the lan- 
guage of perspective, the picture is a combination of about 
one hundred and thirty pictures of the sitter, taken from one 
hundred and thirty different points of sight ! If such is the 
picture formed by a three-inch lens, what must be the 
amount of the anamorphism, or distortion of form, which is 
produced by photographic lenses of diameters from three to 
twelve inches, actually used in photography I 1 

1 See my Treatise on Optics, 2d edit, chap. rli. p. 65. 


But it is not merely by the size of the lenses that hideous 
portraits are produced. In cameras with two achromatic 
lenses, the rays which form the picture pass through a large 
thickness of glass, which may not be altogether homoge- 
neous, — through eight surfaces which may not be truly 
spherical, and which certainly scatter light in all directions, — 
and through an optical combination in which straight lines 
in the object must be conic sections in the picture ! 

Photography, therefore, cannot even approximate to per- 
fection till the artist works with a camera furnished with a 
single quarter of an inch lens of rock crystal, having its 
radii of curvature as six to one, or what experience may find 
better, with an achromatic lens of the same aperture. And 
we may state with equal confidence, that the photographer 
who has the sagacity to perceive the defects of his instru- 
ments, the honesty to avow it, and the skill to remedy them 
by the applications of modern science, will take a place as 
high in photographic portraiture as a Reynolds or a Law- 
rence in the sister art. 

Such being the nature of single portraits, we may form 
some notion of the effect produced by combining dissimilar 
ones in the stereoscope, so as to represent the original in 
relief. The single pictures themselves, including binocular 
and multocular representations of the individual, must, when 
combined, exhibit a very imperfect portrait in relief — so 
imperfect, indeed, that the artist is obliged to take his two 
pictures from points of sight different from the correct 
points, in order to produce the least disagreeable result. 
This will appear after we have explained the correct method 
of taking binocular portraits for the stereoscope. 

No person but a painter, or one who has the eye and the 


taste of a painter, is qualified to be a photographer either 
in single or binocular portraiture. The first step in taking 
a portrait or copying a statue, is to ascertain in what aspect 
and at what distance from the eye it ought to be taken. 

In order to understand this subject, we shall first con- 
sider the vision, with one eye, of objects of three dimensions, 
when of different magnitudes and placed at different dis- 
tances. When we thus view a building, or a full-length or 
colossal statue, at a short distance, a picture of all its visible 
parts is formed on the retina. If we view it at a greater 
distance, certain parts cease to be seen, and other parts 
come into view ; and this change in the picture will go on, 
but will become less and less perceptible as we retire from 
the original If we now look at the building or statue from 
a distance through a telescope, so as to present it to us 
with the same distinctness, and of the same apparent mag- 
nitude as we saw it at our first position, the two pictures 
will be essentially different ; all the parts which ceased to 
be visible as we retired will still be invisible, and all the 
parts which were not seen at our first position, but became 
visible by retiring, will be seen in the telescopic picture. 
Hence the parts seen by the near eye, and not by the distant 
telescope, will be those towards the middle of the building 
or statue, whose surfaces converge, as it were, towards the 
eye; while those seen by the telescope, and not by the 
eye, will be the external parts of the object, whose sur- 
faces converge less, or approach to parallelism. It will 
depend on the nature of the building or the statue which 
of these pictures gives us the most favourable representation 
of it. 

If we now suppose the building or statue to be reduced 


in the most perfect manner, — to half its size, for example, — 
then it is obvious that these two perfectly similar solids will 
afford a different picture, whether viewed by the eye or by 
the telescope. In the reduced copy, the inner surfaces 
visible in the original will disappear, and the outer surfaces 
become visible; and, as formerly, it will depend on the 
nature of the building or the statue whether the reduced or 
the original copy gives the best picture. 

If we repeat the preceding experiments with two eyes 
in place of one 9 the building or statue will have a different 
appearance ; surfaces and parts, formerly invisible, will 
become visible, and the body will be better seen because 
we see more of it ; but then the parts thus brought into 
view being seen, generally speaking, with one eye, will have 
less brightness than the rest of the picture. But though 
we see more of the body in binocular vision, it is only parts 
of vertical surfaces perpendicular to the line joining the 
eyes that are thus brought into view, the parts of similar 
horizontal surfaces remaining invisible as with one eye. It 
would require a pair of eyes placed vertically, that is, with 
the line joining them in a vertical direction, to enable us 
to see the horizontal as well as the vertical surfaces ; and 
it would require a pair of eyes inclined at all possible 
angles, that is, a ring of eyes 2£ inches in diameter, to 
enable us to have a perfectly symmetrical view of the 

These observations will enable us to answer the question, 
whether or not a reduced copy of a statue, of precisely the 
same form in all its parts, will give us, either by monocular 
or binocular vision, a better view of it as a work of art. 
As it is the outer parts or surfaces of a large statue that 


are invisible, its great outline and largest parts must be 
best seen in the reduced copy ; and consequently its relief, 
or third dimension in space, must be much greater in the 
reduced copy. This will be better understood if we suppose 
a sphere to be substituted for the statue. If the sphere 
exceeds in diameter the distance between the pupils of the 
right and left eye, or 2\ inches, we shall not see a complete 
hemisphere, unless from an infinite distance. If the sphere 
is very much larger, we shall see only a segment, whose relief, 
in place of being equal to the radius of the sphere, is equal 
only to the versed sine of half the visible segment. Hence 
it is obvious that a reduced copy of a statue is not only 
better seen from more of its parts being visible, but is also 
seen in stronger relief. 

On the Proper Position of the Sitter. 

With these observations we are now prepared to explain 
the proper method of taking binocular portraits for the 

The first and most important step is to fix upon the 
position of the sitter, — to select the best aspect of the face, 
and, what is of more importance than is generally sup- 
posed, to determine the best distance from the camera at 
which he should be placed. At a short distance certain 
parts of one face and figure which should be seen are 
concealed, and certain parts of other faces are concealed 
which should be seen. Prominent ears may be either 
hid or made less prominent by diminishing the distance, 
and if the sight of both ears is desirable the distance 
should be increased. Prominent features become less pro- 
minent by distance, and their influence in the picture is 


also diminished by the increased vision which distance 
gives of the round of the head. The outline of the face 
and head varies essentially with the distance, and hence it 
is of great importance to choose the best A long and 
narrow face requires to be viewed at a different distance 
from one that is short and round. Articles of dress even 
may have a better or a worse appearance according to the 
distance at which we see them. 

Let us now suppose the proper distance to be six feet, 
and since it is impossible to give any rules for taking 
binocular portraits with large lenses we must assume a 
standard camera with a lens a quarter of an inch in 
diameter, as the only one which can give a correct picture 
as seen with one eye. If the portrait is wanted for a ring, 
a locket, or a binocular slide, its size is determined by its 
purpose, and the photographer must have a camera (which 
he has not) to produce these different pictures. His own 
camera will, no doubt, take a picture for a ring, a locket, 
or a binocular slide, but he does this by placing the sitter 
at different distances, — at a very great distance for the 
ring picture, at a considerable distance for the locket 
picture, and at a shorter distance for the binocular one ; 
but none of these distances are the distance which has been 
selected as the proper one. With a single lens camera, 
however, he requires only several quarter-inch lenses of 
different focal lengths to obtain the portrait of the sitter 
when placed at the proper distance from the camera. 

In order to take binocular portraits for the stereoscope a 
binocular camera is required, having its lenses of such a 
focal length as to produce two equal pictures of the same 
object and of the proper size. Those in general use for 


th6 lenticular stereoscope vary from 2-1 inches to 2*3 
in breadth, and from 2-5 inches to 2-8 in height, the dis- 
tance between similar points in the two pictures varying 
from 2-30 inches to 2*57, according to the different dis- 
tances of the foreground and the remotest object in the 

Having fixed upon the proper distance of the sitter, 
which we shall suppose to be six feet, — a distance very suit- 
able for examining a bust or a picture, we have now to 
take two portraits of him, which, when placed in the 
stereoscope, shall have the same relief and the same 
appearance as the sitter when viewed from the distance of 
six feet. This will be best done by a binocular camera, 
which we shall now describe. 

The Binocular Camera. 

This instrument differs from the common camera in 
having two lenses with the same aperture and focal 
length, for taking at the same instant the picture of the 
sitter as seen at the distance of six feet, or any other dis- 
tance. As it is impossible to grind and polish two lenses, 
whether single or achromatic, of exactly the same focal 
length, even when we have the same glass for both, we 
must bisect a good lens, and use the two semi-lenses, 
ground into a circular form, in order to obtain pictures of 
exactly the same size and definition. These lenses should 
be placed with their diameters of bisection parallel to one 
another, and perpendicular to the horizon, at the distance of 
2£ inches, as shewn in Fig. 45, where mn is the camera, L, 
l' the two lenses, placed in two Bhort tubes, so that by the 
usual mechanical means they can be directed to the sitter, 



or have their axes converged upon him, as shewn in the 
Figure, where ab is the sitter, a 6 his image as given by 
the lens l, and d If as given by the lens l'. These pictures 

Fig. 45. 

are obviously the very same that would be seen by the artist 
with his two eyes at l and l', and asALB = «L& = a! lib', the 
pictures will have the same apparent magnitude as the 
original, and will in no respect differ from it as seen by each 
eye from k, tf, e« being equal to aL, and tfa! to ah. 

Since the publication in 1849 of my description of the 
binocular camera, a similar instrument was proposed in 
Paris by a photographer, M. Quinet, who gave it the name 
of Quinetoscope, which, as the Abbs' Moigno observes, 
means an instrument for seeing M. Quinet ! I have not 
seen this camera, but, from the following notice of it by the 
Abbe 4 Moigno, it does not appear to be different from 
mine : — " Nous avons £te* a la fois surpris et tres-satisfait 
de retrouver dans le Quinetoscope la chambre binoculaire de 
notre ami Sir David BrewBter, telle que nous l'avons 
d&rite apres lui il y a dix-huit mois dans notre brochure 


intitule Stereoscope" Continuing to Bpeak of M. Quinet's 
camera, the Abbe' is led to criticise unjustly what he calls 
the limitation of the instrument : — " En un mot, ce 
charmant appareil est aussi bien construit qu'il peut etre, 
et nous d&irons ardemment qu'il se repand assez pour 
recompenser M. Quinet de son habiletd et de ses peines. 
Employe* dans les limites fixees a l'avance par son veritable 
inventeur> Sir David Brewster ; c'est-a-dire, employe' a 
reproduire des objeU de petite et moyenne grandeur, il 
donnera assez beaux resultats. II ne pourra pas servir, 
evidemment, il ne donnera pas bien Veffet stereoscopique 
voulu, quand on voudra Vappliquer a de trfa-grands objets, 
on a des vues ou paysages pris oVune trls-grande distance ; 
maw il est de la nature des osuvres humaines d'etre essen- 
tiellement bornees" 1 This criticism on the limitation of the 
camera is wholly incorrect ; and it will be made apparent, 
in a future part of the Chapter, that for objects of all sizes 
and at all distances the binocular camera gives the very 
representations which we see, and that other methods, 
referred to as superior, give unreal and untruthful pictures, 
for the purpose of producing a startling relief. 

In stating, as he subsequently does, that the angles at 
which the pictures should be taken " are too vaguely 
indicated by theory," 2 the Abbe* cannot have appealed to 
his own optical knowledge, but must have trusted to the 
practice of Mr. Claudet, who asserts " that there cannot 
be any rule for fixing the binocular angle of camera 
obscuras. It is a matter of taste and artistic illusion." 8 
No question of science can be a matter of taste, and no 

i See Cosmos, vol. ii. pp. 622, 624. » Id. vol vii. p. 494. 

* Id. vol iii. p. 658. 



chap. vm. 

illusion can be artistic which is a misrepresentation of 

When the artist has not a binocular camera he must 
place his single camera successively in such positions that 
the axis of his lens may have the directions el, el' making 
an angle equal to lcl', the angle which the distance between 
the eyes subtends at the distance of the sitter from the 
lenses. This angle is found by the following formula : — 

Tang. £A = i? = >|£ 

d being the distance between the eyes, d the distance of the 
sitter, and a the angle which the distance between the eyes, 
= 2*5, subtends at the distance of the sitter. These angles 
for different distances are given in the following table : — 

D = Distance of Camera 


= Angle formed by tbe two 

from the Sitter. directions of tbe Camera. 

5 inches, ... 28° 6' 


23 32 


20 14 


17 46 


15 48 


14 15 



12, 1 foot, 

11 54 




10 17 


9 32 


8 56 


8 24 


7 56 


7 31 


7 10 

24, 2 feet, 

5 58 


4 46 



D=Di*aaee of Camera, A 

= Angle formed by the 

from the Sitter. 

directions of the Camei 

36 inches, 3 feet, . 

3° 59' 


3 25 

48, 4 feet, 

2 59 


2 39 

60, 5 feet, 

2 23 

72, 6 feet, 

1 59 

84, 7 feet, 

1 42 

96, 8 feet, 

1 30 

108, 9 feet, 

1 20 

120, 10 feet, 

1 12 


The numbers given in the greater part of the preceding 
table can be of use only when we wish to take binocular 
pictures of small objects placed at short distances from 
cameras of a diminutive size. In photographic portraiture 
they are of no use. The correct angle for a distance of six 
feet must not exceed two degrees, — for a distance of eight 
feet, one and a half degrees, and for a distance of ten feet, 
one and a fifth degree. Mr. Wheatstone has given quite a 
different rule. He makes the angle to depend, not on the 
distance of the sitter from the camera, but on the distance 
of the binocular picture in the stereoscope from the eyes of 
the observer ! According to the rule which I have demon- 
strated, the angle of convergency for a distance of six feet 
must be 1° 59', whereas in a stereoscope of any kind, with 
the pictures six inches from the eyes, Mr. Wheatstone makes 
it 23° 32' ! As such a difference is a scandal to science, 
we must endeavour to place the subject in its true light, 
and it will be interesting to observe how the problem has 
been dealt with by the professional photographer. The fol- 
lowing is Mr. Wheatstone's explanation of his own rule, or 
rather his mode of stating it : — 


" With respect," says he, " to the means of preparing 
the binocular photographs, (and in this term I include both 
Talbotypes and Daguerreotypes,) little requires to be said 
beyond a few directions as to the proper positions in which 
it is necessary to place the camera in order to obtain the 
two required projections. 

" We will suppose that the binocular pictures are required 
to be seen in the stereoscope at a distance of eight inches 
before the eyes, in which case the convergence of the optic 
axes is about 1 8°. To obtain the proper projections for this 
distance, the camera must be placed with its lens accurately 
directed towards the object successively in two points of the 
circumference of a circle, of which the object is the centre, 
and the points at which the camera is so placed must have 
the angular distance of 1 8° from each other, exactly that of 
the optic axes in the stereoscope. The distance of the 
camera from the object may be taken arbitrarily, for so 
long as the same angle is employed, whatever that distance 
may be, the picture will exhibit in the stereoscope the same 
relief, and be seen at the same distance of eight inches, 
only the magnitude of the picture will appear different. 
Miniature stereoscopic representations of buildings and full- 
sized statues are, therefore, obtained merely by taking the 
two projections of the object from a considerable distance, 
but at the same time as if the object were only eight inches 
distant, that is, at an angle of 18 ." 1 

Such is Mr. Wheatstone's rule, for which he has assigned 
no reason whatever. In describing the binocular camera, 
in which the lenses must be only 2 J inches distant for por- 
traits, I have shewn that the pictures which it gives are 

i Phil Trans., 1852, p. 7. 


perfect representations of the original, and therefore pictures 
taken with lenses or cameras at any other distance, must be 
different from those which are seen by the artist looking at 
the sitter from his camera. They are, doubtless, both pic- 
tures of the sitter, but the picture taken by Mr. Wheat- 
stone's rule is one which no man ever saw or can see, until 
he can place his eyes at the distance of twenty inches I It 
is, in short, the picture of a living doll, in which parts are 
seen which are never seen in society, and parts hid which 
are always seen. 

In order to throw some light upon his views, Mr. Wheat- 
Btone got " a number of Daguerreotypes of the same bust 
taken at a variety of different angles, so that he was enabled 
to place in the stereoscope two pictures taken at any angular 
distance from 2° to 18°, the former corresponding to a dis- 
tance of about six feet, and the latter to a distance of 
about eight inches." In those taken at 2°, (the proper 
angle,) there is " an undue elongation of lines joining two 
unequally distant points, so that all the features of a bust 
appear to be exaggerated in depth ;" while in those taken 
at 1 8°, " there is an undue shortening of the same lines, 
so that the appearance of a bas-relief is obtained from the 
two projections of the bust, the apparent dimensions in 
breadth and height remaining in both cases the same." 

Although Mr. Wheatstone speaks thus decidedly of the 
relative effect produced by combining pictures taken at 2£° 
and 18°, yet in the very next paragraph he makes state- 
ments entirely incompatible with his previous observations. 
" When the optic axes," he says, " are parallel, in strictness 
there should be no difference between the pictures presented 
to each eye, and in this case there would be no binocular 


relief, but I find iliat an excellent effect is produced when 
the axes are nearly parallel, by pictures taken at an incli- 
nation of 7° or 8°, and even a difference of 16° or 17° has 
no decidedly bad effect /" 

That Mr. Wheatstone observed all these contradictory 
facts we do not doubt, but why he observed them, and 
what was their cause, is a question of scientific as well as 
of practical importance. Mr. Wheatstone was not aware 1 
that the Daguerreotype pictures which he was combining, 
taken with large lenses, were not pictures as seen with two 
human eyes, but were actually binocular and multocular 
monstrosities, entirely unfit for the experiments he was 
carrying on, and therefore incapable of testing the only true 
method of taking binocular pictures which we have already 

Had Mr. Wheatstone combined pictures, each of which 
was a correct monocular picture, as seen with each eye, and 
as taken with a small aperture or a small lens, he would 
have found no discrepancy between the results of observa- 
tion and of science. From the same cause, we presume, 
namely, the use of multocular pictures, Mr. Alfred Smee 2 
has been led to a singular method of taking binocular ones. 
In one place he implicitly adopts Mr. Wheatstone's erro- 
neous rule. " The pictures for the stereoscope," he says, 
" are taken at two stations, at a greater or less distance 
apart, according to the distance at which they are to be 
viewed. For a distance of 8 inches the two pictures are 
taken at angles of 18°, for 13 inches 10°, for 18 inches 

1 Mr. Wheatstone's paper was published before I had pointed oat the deformities 
produced by large lenses. See p. 130. 
* The Eye in Health and Disease, by Alfred Smee, 2d edit. 1854, pp. 85-95. 


8°, and for 4 feet 4°." But when he comes to describe 
his own method he seems to know and to follow the true 
method, if we rightly understand his meaning. " To 
obtain a binocular picture of anybody," he says, "the 
camera must be employed to take half the impression, and 
then it must be moved in the arc of a circle of which the 
distance from the camera to the point of sight 1 is the 
radius for about 2£ inches when a second picture is taken, 
and the two impressions conjointly form one binocular 
picture. There are many ways by which this result may 
be obtained. A spot may be placed on the ground-glass 
on which the point of sight should be made exactly to fall. 
The camera may then be moved 2^ inches, and adjusted 
till the point of sight falls again upon the same spot on 
the ground-glass, when, if the camera has been moved in a 
true horizontal plane the effect of the double picture will be 
perfect," This is precisely the true method of taking 
binocular pictures which we had given long before, but it 
is true only when small lenses are used. In order to 
obtain this motion in the true arc of a circle the camera 
was moved on two cones which converged to the point of 
sight, and Mr. Smee thus obtained pictures of the usual 
character. But in making these experiments he was led to 
take pictures when the camera was in continual motion 
backwards and forwards for 2\ inches, and he remarks 
that " in this case the picture was even more beautiful 
than when the two images were superimposed /" " This 
experiment," he adds, " is very remarkable, for who would 
have thought formerly that a picture could possibly have 

1 This expression has a different meaning in perspective. We understand it to 
mean here the point of the sitter or object, which is to be the centre of the picture. 


been made with a camera in continual motion ? Neverthe- 
less we accomplish it every day with ease, and the character 
of the likeness is wonderfully improved by it." We have 
now left the regions of science, and have to abjudicate on 
a matter of opinion and taste. Mr. Smee has been so kind 
as to send me a picture thus taken. It is a good photo- 
graph with features enlarged in all azimuths, but it has 
no other relief than that which we have described as 

A singular effect of combining pictures taken at extreme 
angles has been noticed by Admiral Lageol. Having taken 
the portrait of one of his friends when his eyes were 
directed to the object-glass of the camera, the Admiral 
made him look at an object 45° ! to the right, and took a 
second picture. When these pictures were placed in the 
stereoscope, and viewed " without ceasing, turning first to 
the right and then to the left, the eyes of the portrait 
follow this motion as if they were animated." * This fact 
must have been noticed in common stereoscopic portraits 
by every person who has viewed them alternately with each 
eye, but it is not merely the eyes which move. The nose, 
and indeed every feature, changes its place, or, to speak 
more correctly, the whole figure leaps from the one binocu- 
lar position into the other. As it is unpleasant to open 
and shut the eyes alternately, the same effect may be more 
agreeably produced in ordinary portraits by merely inter- 
cepting the light which falls upon each picture, or by 
making an opaque screen pass quickly between the eyes 
and the lens, or immediately below the lens, so as to give 
successive vision of the pictures with each eye, and with 

' Cosmos, Feb. 29, 1856, vol. viii. p. 202. 


both. The motion of the light reflected from the round 
eyeball has often a striking effect. 

From these discussions, our readers will observe that the 
science, as well as the art of binocular portraiture for the 
stereoscope, is in a transition state in which it cannot long 
remain. The photographer who works with a very large 
lens chooses an angle which gives the least unfavourable 
results ; his rival, with a lens of less size, chooses, on the 
same principle, a different angle ; and the public, who are 
no judges of the result, are delighted with their pictures in 
relief, and when their noses are either pulled from their 
face, or flattened upon their cheek, or when an arm or a 
limb threatens to escape from their articulation, they are 
assured that nature and not art is to blame. 

We come now to consider under what circumstances the 
photographer may place the lenses of his binocular camera 
at a greater distance than 2\ inches, or his two cameras 
at a greater angle than that which we have fixed. 

1. In taking family portraits for the stereoscope, the 
cameras must be placed at an angle of 2° for 6 feet, when 
the binocular camera is not used. 

2. In taking binocular pictures of any object whatever, 
when we wish to see them exactly as we do with our two 
eyes, we must adopt the same method. 

3. If a portrait is wanted to assist a sculptor in model- 
ling a statue, a great angle might be adopted, in order to 
shew more of the head. But in this case the best way 
would be to take the correct social likeness, and then take 
photographs of the head in different azimuths. 

If we wish to have a greater degree of relief than we 
have with our two eyes, either in viewing colossal statues, 


or buildings, or landscapes, where the deviation from nature 
does not, as in the human face, affect the expression, or 
injure the effect, we must increase the distance of the lenses 
in the binocular camera, or the angle of direction of the 
common camera. Let us take the case of a colossal statue 
10 feet wide, and suppose that dissimilar drawings of it 
about three inches wide are required for the stereoscope. 
These drawings are forty times narrower than the statue, 
and must be taken at such a distance, that with the bino- 
cular camera the relief would be almost evanescent. We 
must therefore suppose the statue to be reduced n times, 
and place the semi-lenses at the distance n x 2\ inches. If 
n = 10, the statue 10 feet wide will be reduced to \% or 
to 1 foot, and n X 2£, or the distance of the semi-lenses 
will be 25 inches. With the lenses at this distance, the 
dissimilar pictures of the statue will reproduce, when com- 
bined, a statue one foot wide, which will have exactly the 
same appearance and relief as if we had viewed the colossal 
statue with eyes 25 inches distant. But the reproduced 
statue will have also the same appearance and relief as a 
statue a foot wide reduced from the colossal one with 
mathematical precision, and it will therefore be a better or 
more relieved representation of the work of art than if we 
had viewed the colossal original with our own eyes, either 
under a greater, an equal, or a less angle of apparent 

We have supposed that a statue a foot broad will be 
seen in proper relief by binocular vision ; but it remains to 
be decided whether or not it would be more advantageously 
seen if reduced with mathematical precision to a breadth of 
2% inches, the width of the eyes, which gives the vision of 


a hemisphere ty inches in diameter with the most perfect 
relief. 1 If we adopt this principle, and call b the breadth of 
the statue of which we require dissimilar pictures, we must 
make n = ^, and n X 2J = b, that is, the distance of the 
semi-lenses in the binocular camera, or of the lenses in two 
cameras, must be made equal to the breadth of the statue. 
In concluding this chapter, it may be proper to remark, 
that unless we require an increased relief for some special 
purpose, landscapes and buildings should be taken with the 
normal binocular camera, that is, with its lenses 2\ inches 
distant. Scenery of every kind, whether of the picturesque, 
or of the sublime, cannot be made more beautiful or grand 
than it is when seen by the traveller himself. To add an 
artificial relief is but a trick which may startle the vulgar, 
but cannot gratify the lover of what is true in nature and 
in art. 

The Single Lens Binocular Camera. 

As every photographer possesses a camera with a lens 
between 2\ and 3 inches in diameter, it may be useful to 
him to know how he may convert it into a binocular in- 

In a cover for the lens take two points equidistant from 
each other, and make two apertures, c, d, Fig. 43, ^ths of 
an inch in diameter, or of any larger size that may be 
thought proper, though -& is the proper size. Place the 
cover on the end of the tube, and bring the line joining the 
apertures into a horizontal position. Closing one aperture, 
take the picture of the sitter, or of the statue, through the 

i It is only in a horizontal direction that we can see 180° of the hemisphere. 
We would require a circle of eyes 2\ inches distant to see a complete hemisphere. 


other, and when the picture is shifted aside by the usual 
contrivances for this purpose, take the picture through the 
other aperture. These will be good binocular portraits, 
fitted for any stereoscope, but particularly for the Achromatic 
Reading Glass Stereoscope. If greater relief is wanted, it 
may be obtained in larger lenses by placing the two aper- 
tures at the greatest distance which the diameter of the lens 
will permit. 

The Binocular Camera made the Stereoscope. 

If the lenses of the binocular camera, when they are 
whole lenses, be made to separate a little, so that the dis- 
tance between the centres of their inner halves may be 
equal to 2£ inches, they become a lenticular stereoscope, in 
which we may view the pictures which they themselves 
create. The binocular pictures are placed in the camera 
in the very place where their negatives were formed, and 
the observer, looking through the halves of his camera 
lenses, will see the pictures united and in relief. If the 
binocular camera is made of semi-lenses, we have only to 
place them with their thin edges facing each other to ob- 
tain the same result. It will appear, from the discussions 
in the following chapter, that such a stereoscope, indepen- 
dently of its being achromatic, if the camera is achromatic, 
will be the most perfect of stereoscopic instruments. 

The preceding methods are equally applicable to land- 
scapes, machines, and instruments, and to solid constructions 
of every kind, whether they be the production of nature or 
of Art. 1 

1 See Chapters X. and XI. 




Having described the various forms of the stereoscope, 
and the method of taking the binocular portraits and pic- 
tures to which it is to be applied, we have now to consider 
the relation that ought to exist between the instrument and 
the pictures, — a subject which has not been noticed by pre- 
ceding writers. 

If we unite two dissimilar pictures by the simple con- 
vergency of the optical axes, we shall observe a certain 
degree of relief, at a certain distance of the eyes from the 
pictures. If we diminish the distance, the relief diminishes, 
and if we increase it, it increases. In like manner, if we 
view the dissimilar pictures in the lenticular stereoscope, 
they have a certain degree of relief ; but if we use lenses of 
a higher magnifying power, so as to bring the eyes nearer 
the pictures, the relief will diminish, and if we use lenses 
of a less magnifying power, the relief will increase. By 
bringing the eyes nearer the pictures, which we do by mag- 
nifying them as well as by approaching them, we increase 
the distance between similar points of the two pictures, and 
therefore the distance of these points, when united, from 


any plane in the picture, that is, its relief will be dimi- 
nished. For the same reason, the diminution of the dis- 
tance between similar points by the removal of the eyes 
from the picture, will produce an increase of relief. This 
will be readily understood if we suppose the eyes R, l, in 
Fig. 24, to be brought nearer the plane mn, to r' l', the 
points 1, 1 and 2, 2 will be united at points nearer mn 
than when the eyes were at e, l, and consequently their 
relief diminished. 

Now we have seen, that in taking portraits, as explained 
in Fig. 45, we view the two pictures, a 6, a' b', with the 
eyes at e and E', exactly, and with the same relief in the 
air, as when we saw the original a b, from l, l', and there- 
fore ec is the distance at which the dissimilar pictures 
should be viewed in the stereoscope, in order that we may 
see the different parts of the solid figure under their proper 
relief. But the distance ec = lc is the conjugate focal 
length of the lens l, if one lens is used, or the conjugate 
equivalent focal length, if two achromatic lenses are used ; 
and consequently every picture taken for the stereoscope 
should be taken by a camera, the conjugate focal length of 
whose lens corresponding to the distance of the sitter, is 
equal to Jive inches, when it is to be used in the common 
stereoscope, which has generally that depth. 

Between the pictures and the purely optical part of the 
stereoscope, there are other relations of very considerable 
importance. The exclusion of all external objects or sources 
of light, excepting that which illuminates the pictures, is a 
point of essential importance, though its advantages have 
never been appreciated. The spectacle stereoscope held in 
the hand, the reflecting stereoscope, and the open lenticular 


stereoscope, are all, in this respect, defective. The bin- 
ocular pictures must be placed in a dark box, in order to 
produce their full effect ; and it would be a great improve- 
ment on the lenticular stereoscope, if, on the left and right 
side of each eye-tube, a piece of brass were to be placed, so 
as to prevent any light from entering the left angle of the 
left eye, and the right angle of the right eye. 1 The eyes, 
thus protected from the action of all external light, and 
seeing nothing but the picture, will see it with a distinctness 
and brilliancy which could not otherwise be obtained. 

The proper iUuminatftn of the picture, when seen by re- 
flected light, is also a point of essential importance. The 
method universally adopted in the lenticular stereoscope is 
not good, and is not the one which I found to be the best, 
and which I employed in the first-constructed instruments. 
The light which falls upon the picture is prevented from 
reaching the observer only by its being incident at an angle 
greater or less than the angle of reflexion which would 
carry it to his eyes. A portion of the scattered light, how- 
ever, does reach the eye, and in Daguerreotypes especially, 
when any part of the surface is injured, the injury, or any 
other imperfection in the plate, is more distinctly seen. 
The illumination should be lateral, either by a different 
form of window in the front, or by openings on the two 
sides, or by both these methods. 

When the lenticular stereoscope is thus fitted up, and 
the pictures in this manner illuminated, the difference of 
effect is equally great as it is between a picture as commonly 

» When any external light falls upon the eye, its picture is reflected back from 
the metallic surface of the Daguerreotype, and a negative picture of the part 
of (he Daguerreotype opposite each eye is mixed with the positive picture of the 
same part. 



seen, and the same picture exhibited as a panorama or a 
diorama, in which no light reaches the eyes but that which 
radiates from the painting itself, the reflexion from the 
varnish being removed by oblique or lateral illumination. 

The great value of transparent binocular slides, when the 
picture is to be upon glass, is obvious from the preceding 
considerations. The illumination is uniform and excel- 
lent, but care must be taken to have the ground glass in 
front of the picture, or the paper, when it is used, of a very 
fine grain, so that it may throw no black specks upon the 
sky or the lights of the picture. Another advantage of the 
transparent slides is, that the pictures are better protected 
from injury than those upon paper. 

It is obvious from these considerations that the me of 
the pictures is determined, as well as the distance at which 
they are to be viewed. Much ignorance prevails upon this 
subject, both among practical photographers and optical 
writers. Large binocular pictures have been spoken of as 
desirable productions, and it has been asserted, and claimed 
too, as a valuable property of the reflecting stereoscope, 
that it allows us to use larger pictures than other instru- 
ments. There never was a greater mistake. If we take a 
large picture for the stereoscope we must place it at a great 
distance from the eye, and consequently use a large stereo- 
scope. A small picture, seen distinctly near the eye, is the 
very same thing as a large picture seen at a greater distance. 
The size of a picture, speaking optically and correctly, is 
measured by the angle which it subtends at the eye, that 
is its apparent magnitude. A portrait three inches high, 
for example, and placed in the lenticular stereoscope five 
inches from the eye, has the same apparent size as a Kit 


Cat portrait in oil the size of life, three feet high, seen at 
the distance of five feet, the distance at which it is com- 
monly examined ; and if we increase the magnifying power 
so as to see the three-inch picture at the distance of two 
inches, it will have the same apparent size as the three feet 
oil portrait seen at the distance of two feet. If the pictures 
used in the stereoscope were imperfect pictures that would 
not bear being magnified, it would be improper to use 
them ; but the Daguerreotypes, and the transparent pictures, 
which are taken by the first artists, for the lenticular stereo- 
scope, will bear a magnifying power ten times greater than 
that which is applied to them. 

If we take a large picture for the stereoscope, we are 
compelled by pictorial truth to place it at a distance from 
the eye equal to the equivalent focal distance of the camera. 
Every picture in every camera has the same apparent mag- 
nitude as the object which it represents ; whether it be a 
human figure, or the most distant landscape ; and if we de- 
sire to see it in its true relief in the stereoscope, we must 
place it at a distance from the eye equal to the focal length of 
the lens, whether it be an inch or a foot high. There is, 
therefore, nothing gained by using large pictures. There 
is, on the contrary, much inconvenience in their use. They 
are in themselves less portable, and require a larger stereo- 
scope; and we believe, no person whatever, who is ac- 
quainted with the perfection and beauty of the binocular 
slides in universal use, would either incur the expense, or 
take the trouble of using pictures of a larger size. 

In the beautiful combination of lenticular stereoscopes, 
which was exhibited by Mr. Claudet, Mr. Williams, and 
others, in the Paris Exhibition, and into which six or eight 


persons were looking at the same time, binocular pictures 
of a larger size could not have been conveniently used. 

But, independently of these reasons, the question of large 
pictures has been practically settled. No such pictures 
are taken by the Daguerreotypists or Talbotypists, who are 
now enriching art with the choicest views of the antiquities, 
and modern buildings, and picturesque scenery of every 
part of the world ; and even if they could be obtained, there 
are no instruments fitted for their exhibition. In the 
magnificent collection of stereoscopic pictures, amounting to 
above a thousand, advertised by the London Stereoscopic 
Company, there are no fewer than sixty taken in Rome, and 
representing, better than a traveller could see them there, 
the ancient and modern buildings of that renowned city. 
Were these sixty views placed on the sides of a revolving 
polygon, with a stereoscope before each of its faces, a score 
of persons might, in the course of an hour, see more of 
Rome, and see it better, than if they had visited it in per- 
son. At all events, those who are neither able nor willing 
to bear the expense, and undergo the toil of personal travel, 
would, in such a panorama, — an analytical view of Rome, 
— acquire as perfect a knowledge of its localities, ancient 
and modern, as the ordinary traveller. In the same man- 
ner, we might study the other metropolitan cities of the 
world, and travel from them to its river and mountain 
scenery, — admiring its noble castles in our descent of the 
Rhine, — its grand and wild scenery on the banks of the 
Mississippi, or the Orinoco, — the mountain gorges, the 
glaciers, and the peaks of the Alps and the Ural, — and the 
more sublime grandeur which reigns among the solitudes of 
the Himalaya and the Andes. 


The following general rule for taking and combining 
binocular pictures is the demonstrable result of the principles 
explained in this chapter : — 

Supposing that the camera obscura employed to take 
binocular portraits, landscapes, dec, gives perfect representa- 
tions of them, the relief picture in the stereoscope, produced 
by their superposition and binocular union, will not be 
correct and truthful, unless the dissimilar pictures are 
placed in the stereoscope at a distance from the eyes, equal 
to the focal distance, real or equivalent, of the object-glass 
or object-glasses of the camera, and, whatever be the size of 
the pictures, they will appear, when they are so placed, of 
the same apparent magnitude, and in the same relief, as 
when they were seen from the object-glass of the camera by 
the photographer himself. 




Having explained the only true method of taking bin- 
ocular portraits which will appear in correct relief when 
placed in the stereoscope, we shall proceed in this chapter 
to point out the application of the stereoscope to the art of 
painting in all its branches. In doing this we must not 
forget how much the stereoscope owes to photography, and 
how much the arts of design might reasonably expect from 
the solar pencil, when rightly guided, even if the stereoscope 
had never been invented. 

When the processes of the Daguerreotype and Talbotype, 
the sister arts of Photography, were first given to the world, 
it was the expectation of some, and the dread of others, 
that the excellence and correctness of their delineations would 
cast into the shade the less truthful representations of the 
portrait and the landscape painter. An invention which 
supersedes animal power, or even the professional labour of 
man, might have been justly hailed as a social blessing, but 
an art which should supersede the efforts of genius, and 
interfere with the exercise of those creative powers which 
represent to us what is beautiful and sublime in nature, 
would, if such a thing were possible, be a social evil. 

The arts of painting, sculpture, and architecture have in 


every age, and in every region of civilisation, called into 
exercise the loftiest genius and the deepest reason of man. 
Consecrated by piety, and hallowed by affection, the choicest 
productions of the pencil and the chisel have been preserved 
by the liberality of individuals and the munificence of 
princes, while the palaces of sovereigns, the edifices of social 
Hfe, the temples of religion, the watch-towers of war, the 
obelisks of fame, and the mausolea of domestic grief, stand 
under the azure cupola of heaven, to attest by their living 
beauty, or their ruined grandeur, the genius and liberality 
which gave them birth. To the cultivation and patronage 
of such noble arts, the vanity, the hopes, and the holiest 
affections of man stand irrevocably pledged ; and we should 
deplore any invention or discovery, or any tide in the 
nation's taste, which should paralyse the artist's pencil, or 
break the sculptor's chisel, or divert into new channels the 
genius which wields them. But instead of superseding the 
arts of design, photography will but supply them with new 
materials, — with collections of costume, — with studies of 
drapery and of forms, and with scenes in life, and facts in 
nature, which, if they possess at all, they possess imper- 
fectly, and without which art must be stationary, if she 
does not languish and decline. 

Sentiments analogous to these have been more profes- 
sionally expressed by M. Delaroche, a distinguished French 
artist, — by Sir Charles Eastlake, whose taste and knowledge 
of art is unrivalled, — and by Mr. Ruskin, who has already 
given laws to art, and whose genius is destined to elevate 
and to reform it. M. Delaroche considers photography 
"as carrying to such perfection certain of the essential 
principles of art, that they must become subjects of study 


and observation, even to the most accomplished artist." 
. . . . " The finish of inconceivable minuteness," he says, 
" disturbs in no respect the repose of the masses, nor im- 
pairs in any way the general effect. .... The correctness 
of the lines, the precision of the forms in the designs of 
M. Daguerre, are as perfect as it is possible they can be, 
and yet, at the same time, we discover in them a broad and 
energetic manner, and a whole equally rich in hue and in 
effect. The painter will obtain by this process a quick 
method of making collections of studies, which he could not 
otherwise procure without much time and labour, and in a 
style very far inferior, whatever might be his talents in 
other respects." In the same spirit, Mr. Buskin 1 considers 
" the art of photography as enabling us to obtain as many 
memoranda of the facts of nature as we need ;" and long 
before Mr. Talbot taught us to fix upon paper the pictures 
of the camera obscura, the Rev. John Thomson, one of the 
most distinguished of our Scottish landscape painters, 
studied, in one of these instruments, the forms and colours 
of the scenes which he was to represent. Other artists, 
both in portrait and in landscape, now avail themselves of 
photography, both as an auxiliary and a guide in their pro- 
fession ; but there are certain difficulties and imperfections 
in the art itself, and so many precautions required in its 
right application, whether we use its pictures single, as re- 
presentations on a plane, or take them binocularly, to be 
raised into relief by the stereoscope, that we must draw from 
the principles of optics the only rules which can be of real 
services to the arts of design. 

In painting a landscape, a building, a figure, or a group 

1 Modern Painters, vol. ill, Pre&ce, pp. 11, 12. 


of figures, the object of the artist is to represent it on his 
canvas just as he sees it, having previously selected the best 
point of view, and marked for omission or improvement 
what is* not beautiful, or what would interfere with the 
effect of his picture as a work of high art. His first step, 
therefore, is to fix upon the size of his canvas, or the dis- 
tance at which the picture is to be seen, which determines 
its size. His own eye is a camera obscura, and the rela- 
tion between the picture or image on its retina is such, 
that if we could view* it from the centre of curvature of the 
retina, (the centre of visible direction,) a distance of half an 
inch, it would have precisely the same apparent magnitude 
as the object of which it is the image. Let us now sup- 
pose that the artist wishes to avail himself of the picture 
in the camera obscura as received either on paper or ground 
glass, or of a photograph of the scene he is to paint. He 
must make use of a camera whose focal length is equal to 
the distance at which his picture is to be seen, and when 
the picture thus taken is viewed at this distance (suppose 
two feet) it will, as a whole, and in all its parts, have the 
same apparent magnitude as the original object This will 
be understood from Fig. 47, in which we may suppose h 
to be the lens of the camera, bb the object, and ny 1 the 
distance at which it is to be viewed. The size of the 
picture taken with a lens at h, whose focal length is h^, 
will be 6V, and an eye placed at h will see the picture 6V 
under an angle b's.i\ equal to the angle bhb, under which 
the real object bb was seen by the artist from h. In like 
manner, a larger picture, byr, taken by a camera the focal 
distance of whose lens at H is Hy, will be an accurate 
representation of the object bb, when viewed from h, and of 


the same apparent magnitude. If either of these pictures, 
b V or b r, are viewed from greater or less distances than 
Hy, or Hy, they will not be correct representations of the 

Fio. 47. 

object rb, either in apparent magnitude or form. That 
they will be of a different apparent magnitude, greater 
when viewed at less distances than Hy*, h$t, and less when 
viewed at greater distances, is too obvious to require any 
illustration. That they will differ in form, or in the relative 
apparent size of their parts, has, so far as I know, not 
been conjectured. In order to shew this, let us suppose a 
man six feet high to occupy the foreground, and another 
of the same size to be placed in the middle distance, the 
distance of the two from the artist being ten and twenty 
feet. The apparent magnitudes of these two men on the 
photograph will be as two to one ; and if we look at it at 
any distance greater or less than the focal length YLjf of the 
lens, the same proportion of two to one will be preserved, 
whereas if we look at the original figures at a greater or 
less distance from them than the place of the artist, the 


ratio of their apparent magnitudes will be altered. If the 
artist, for example, advances five feet, the nearest man will 
be five feet distant and the other fifteen feet, so that their 
apparent magnitude will now be as three to one. 

The same observations apply to a portrait of the human 
face. In looking at a human profile let us suppose the 
breadth of the nose to be one inch, that of the ear one 
inch, and that we view this profile at the distance of three 
feet from the ear, which is two inches nearer the observer 
than the nose. The apparent magnitude of the ear and 
nose will be as thirty-eight to thirty-six inches, whereas 
if we view the profile from the distance of one foot the 
ratio will be as fourteen to twelve, that is, the ear will be 
increased in apparent size more than the nose. Hence it 
follows that all pictures should be viewed under the same 
angle of apparent magnitude under which they were seen 
by the artist as taken photographically, for if we view 
them at a greater or less angle than this we do not see the 
same picture as when we looked at the original landscape 
or portrait, under the same angle of apparent magnitude. 

From the observations made in the preceding Chapter 
on photographic and stereoscopic portraiture, the reader 
must have already drawn the inference that the same 
landscape or building, seen at different distances, varies 
essentially in its character, — beauties disclosing themselves 
and defects disappearing as we approach or recede from 
them. The picture in the camera, therefore, as used by 
Mr. Thomson, or, what is still better, with the exception of 
colour, the photograph obtained by the same instrument, 
will supply the artist with all the general materials for his 
picture. The photograph will differ considerably from any 


sketch which the artist may have himself made, owing to 
certain optical illusions to which his eye is subject. The 
hills and other vertical lines in the distance will be lower 
in the photograph than in his sketch. 1 The vertical lines 
of buildings will converge upwards in the photograph, as 
they ought to do, in receding from the eye ; and in the 
same picture there will be a confusion, as we shall after- 
wards shew, in the delineation of near and minute objects 
in the foreground, increasing with the size of the lens which 
he has employed. 

In his admirable chapter " On Finish," Mr. Ruskin has 
established, beyond a doubt, the most important principle 
in the art of painting. " The finishing of nature," he 
states, " consists not in the smoothing of surface, but the 
filling of space, and the multiplication of life and thought ;" 
and hence he draws the conclusion, that " finishing means, 
in art, simply telling more truth." Titian, Tintoret, Bellini, 
and Veronese have, as he has shewn, wrought upon this 
principle, delineating vein by vein in the leaf of the vine, 
petal by petal in the borage-blossoms, the very snail-shells 
on the ground, the stripe of black bark in the birch-tree, 
and the clusters of the ivy-leaved toad-flax in the rents of 
their walls ; and we have seen that a modern artist, Dela- 
roche, considers a finish of inconceivable minuteness as 

* Sir Francis Chantrey, the celebrated sculptor, shewed me, many years ago, a 
Sketch-Book, containing numerous drawings which he had made with the Camera 
Lucida, while travelling from London to Edinburgh by the Lakes. He pointed 
out to me the flatness, or rather lowness, of hills, which to his own eye appeared 
much higher, but which, notwithstanding, gave to him the idea of a greater eleva- 
tion. In order to put this opinion to the test of experiment, I had drawings 
made by a skilful artist of the three Eildon hills opposite my residence on 
tbe Tweed, and wassurprised to obtain, by comparing them with their true perspec- 
tive outlines, a striking confirmation of the observation made by Sir Francis 


neither disturbing the repose of the masses, nor interfering 
with the general effect in a picture. 

The Pre-Raphaelites, therefore, may appeal to high 
authority for the cardinal doctrine of their creed ; and what- 
ever be their errors in judgment or in taste, they have 
inaugurated a revolution which will release art from its 
fetters, and give it a freer and a nobler aim. Nature is too 
grand in her minuteness, and too beautiful in her humility, 
to be overlooked in the poetry of art. If her tenderest and 
most delicate forms are worthy of admiration, she will de- 
mand from the artist his highest powers of design. If the 
living organizations of the teeming earth, upon which we 
hourly tread, are matchless in structure, and fascinating in 
colour, the palette of the painter must surrender to them 
its choicest tints. In the foreground of the highest art, 
the snail-shell may inoffensively creep from beneath the 
withered leaf or the living blade; the harebell and the 
violet may claim a place in the sylvan dell ; the moss may 
display its tiny frond, the gnarled oak or the twisted pine 
may demand the recognition of the botanist, while the castle 
wall rises in grandeur behind them, and the gigantic cliffs 
or the lofty mountain range terminate the scene. 

If these views are sound, the man of taste will no longer 
endure slovenliness in art. He will demand truth as well 
as beauty in the landscape ; and that painter may change 
his profession who cannot impress geology upon his rocks, 
and botany upon his plants and trees, or who refuses to 
display, upon his summer or his autumn tablet, the green 
crop as well as the growing and the gathered harvest. Thus 
enlarged in its powers and elevated in its purposes, the art 
of painting will be invested with a new character, demand- 


ing from its votaries higher skill and more extended know- 
ledge. In former times, the minute and accurate delinea- 
tion of nature was a task almost impossible, requiring an 
amount of toil which could hardly be repaid even when 
slightly performed ; but science has now furnished art with 
the most perfect means of arresting, in their most delicate 
forms, every object, however minute, that can enter into the 
composition of a picture. These means are the arts of 
photography and stereoscopic re-combination, when rightly 
directed, and it is the object of the present chapter to shew 
how the artist may best avail himself of their valuable and 
indispensable aid. 

Every country and district, and even different parts of the 
same district, have a Flora and Geology peculiar to them- 
selves; and the artist who undertakes to represent its beau- 
ties owes to truth the same obligations as the botanist who 
is to describe its plants, or the mineralogist its rocks and 
stones. The critic could not, in former times, expect more 
details from his unaided pencil than it has generally fur- 
nished ; but with the means now at his command, he must 
collect, like the naturalist, all the materials for his subject. 
After the camera has given him the great features of his 
landscape, he must appeal to it for accurate delineations of 
its minuter parts, — the trunks, and stems, and leafage of 
his trees — the dipping strata of its sandstone beds — the 
contortions of its kneaded gneiss, or the ruder features of 
its trap and its granite. For the most important of these 
details he will find the camera, as at present constructed, 
of little service. It is fitted only to copy surfaces ; and 
therefore, when directed to solid bodies, such as living 
beings, statues, &c, it gives false and hideous representa- 


tions of them, as I hare shewn in a preceding chapter. It 
is peculiarly defective when applied to parts of bodies at 
different distances from it, and of a less diameter than the 
lens. The photograph of a cube taken by a lens of a greater 
diameter, will display Jfoe of its sides in a position, when its 
true perspective representation is simply a single square of 
its surface. When applied to trees, and shrubs, and flowers, 
its pictures are still more unsatisfactory. Every stem and 
leaf smaller than the lens, though absolutely opaque, is 
transparent, and leaves and stems behind and beyond are 
seen like ghosts through the photographic image. 

This will be understood from Fig. 48, in which ll is the 

Fig. 48. 

lens of the camera, ab the breadth of the trunk or stem of 
a tree less than ll in width. Draw la, lb, touching ab 
in the points A, b, and crossing at c. Objects behind ab, 


and placed within the angle acb, will not have any images 
of them formed by the lens ll, because none of the rays 
which proceed from them can mil upon the lens, but objects 
placed within the angle ecf, however remote be their dis- 
tance, will have images of them formed by the lens. If d, 
for example, be a leaf or a fruit, or a portion of a branch, 
the rays which it emits will fall upon the portions Lm, in 
of the lens, determined by drawing Dm, j>n touching ab, 
and an image of it will be formed in the centre of the photo- 
graphic image of ab, as if ab were transparent This image 
will be formed by all the portions of the surface of the lens 
on which the shadow of ab, formed by rays emanating from 
d, would not fall If the object d is more remote, the shadow 
of ab will diminish in size, and the image of the object will 
be formed by a greater portion of the lens. If the sun were 
to be in the direction m n, his image would appear in the 
centre of the trunk or stem, corresponding to ab, Fig. 49. 

If the stem occupies any other position, ab, Fig. 48, in the 
landscape, objects, such as d, within the angle ecf, will have 


images of them formed within the corresponding portion of 
the trunk or stem. Hence, if ab, Fig. 49, represents the 
shadow of the stem across the lens ll, the image of any 
object, which if luminous would give this shadow, will be 
formed within the photographic image of the stem, and as 
every part of it may have branches, or leaves, or fruit behind 
it, its photographs will be filled with their pictures, which 
will have the same distinctness as other equidistant parts 
of the landscape. 

These observations are applicable to the limbs and slender 
parts of animate and inanimate figures, when they are of a 
less size than the lens with which their photograph is taken. 
They will be transparent to all objects behind them, and 
their true forms and shades cannot be taken with the 
cameras now in use. 1 

In order, therefore, to collect from nature the materials 
of his profession, the artist must use a camera with a lens 
not much larger than the pupil of his eye, and with such 
an instrument he will obtain the most correct drawings of 
the trunks and stems of trees, of the texture and markings 
of their bark, of the form of their leaves, and of all those 
peculiarities of structure and of leafage by which alone the 
trees of the forest can be distinguished. In like maimer, 
he will obtain the most correct representations of the rocks 
and precipices, and the individual stones 2 which may enter 

i By using large lenses, we may obtain the picture of an object within the picture 
of an opaque one in front of it ; and with a telescope, we may Bee through opaque 
objects of a certain size. Many singular experiments may be made by taking pho- 
tographs of solid objects, simple or compound, with lenses larger than the objects 

3 In a landscape by Mr. Waller Paton, called the " Highland Stream," now in 
the Edinburgh Exhibition, the foreground consists principally of a bed of water- 
worn stones, on the margin of a pool at the bottom of a waterfall. The stones are 



into his picture, — of the plants which spring from their 
crevices or grow at their base, and of those flowers in their 
native grace and beauty, which hitherto he has either drawn 
from recollection, or copied from the formal representations 
of the botanist. 

In addition to their correctness as true representations of 
natural forms, photographs have a peculiar value, for which 
no labour or skill on the part of the artist can compensate. 
In drawing the sketch of a landscape, or delineating the 
trees, rocks, and foliage which are near him, or the objects 
in the middle or remote distance, several hours must be 
spent. During this period, the landscape and its individual 
parts are undergoing no inconsiderable change. A breeze may 
disturb the masses of his foliage, and bend his tree stems, 
and ruffle his verdure, and throw new reflected lights upon 
the waving crops, while every direct light is changing in in- 
tensity and direction during the culmination or descent of 
the sun. What he has delineated in the morning will 
hardly correspond with what he draws at noon, and the 
distances which at one time are finely marked in aerial 
perspective, will disappear, or even suffer inversion by 
variations in the intensity and position of the haze. If 
cottages, or castles, or buildings of any kind, enter into the 
picture, the shadows of their projections, and the lights upon 
their walls and roofs will, in sunshine, undergo still greater . 
variations, and the artist will be perplexed with the ana- 
chronisms and inconsistencies of his choicest materials. The 

so exquisitely painted, that nature only could have furnished the originals. We 
may examine them at a few inches' distance, and recognise forms and structures 
with which we have been long familiar. A water-ousel, peculiar to Scottish brooks 
and rivers, perched upon one of them, looks as anxiously around as if a schoolboy 
were about to avail himself of the missiles at his feet. 


landscape thus composed in patches will, in its photograph, 
have a very different aspect, as much in its forms as in its 
lights and shadows. The truths of nature are fixed at one 
instant of time ; the self-delineated landscape is embalmed 
amid the co-existing events of the physical and social world. 
If the sun shines, his rays throw their gilding on the pic- 
ture. If the rain-shower falls, the earth and the trees 
glisten with its reflexions. If the wind blows, the partially 
obliterated foliage will display the extent of its agitation. 
The objects of still life, too, give reality and animation to 
the scene. The streets display their stationary chariots, 
the esplanade its military array, and the market-place its 
colloquial groups, while the fields are studded with the 
forms and attitudes of animal life. The incidents of time 
and the forms of space are thus simultaneously recorded, 
and every picture from the sober palette of the sun becomes 
an authentic chapter in the history of the world. 1 

But, however valuable photography has become to the 
artist, science has recently given him another important 
auxiliary. In order to make this available, he must em- 
ploy a small pocket binocular camera, to take double 
pictures to be united in the stereoscope. His trees will 
thus exhibit the roundness of their trunks and stems, the 
leaves and branches will place themselves at their proper 
distance, and he will discover the reason of peculiar effects 
which in the plane photograph he has been unable to 
understand. Seeing that his own picture is to be upon a 
plane surface, I can hardly expect to convince the artist 
that he will obtain more information by reproducing the 

i These views are well illustrated by the remarkable photographs of the Crimean 


original in relief It is a fact, however, beyond dispute, 
that effects are produced by the stereoscopic union of two 
plane photographs which are invisible in the single picture. 
These effects, which are chiefly those of lustre and shade, 
are peculiarly remarkable in Daguerreotype, and it is by no 
means easy to explain the cause. In a Daguerreotype, for 
example, of two figures in black bronze, with a high metallic 
lustre, it is impossible, by looking at the single picture, to 
tell the material of which they are made ; but the moment 
they are united into stereoscopic relief their true character 
is instantly seen. In a Daguerreotype of Alexander and 
Bucephalus, portions of the figure seem as if shaded with 
China ink of a nearly uniform tint, but when seen in relief 
the peculiar shade entirely disappears. The stereoscopic 
combination of two surfaces of different intensities, though 
of the same colour, produces effects which have not yet 
been sufficiently studied. But, independently of these 
peculiarities, the artist will certainly derive more aid from 
his landscape in relief and from the study of its individual 
parts, in their roundness and relative distances, than when 
he examines them in their plane representations. The 
shadows which the branches of leaves cast upon the trunks 
and stems of his trees he will be able to trace to the 
causes which produce them. Effects in outline, as well as 
in light and shadow, which may perplex him, will find an 
explanation in the relative distances and differences of 
apparent magnitude of individual parts ; and, after becoming 
familiar with his landscape in relief, as it exists in Nature, 
he cannot mil to acquire new principles and methods of 
manipulation. Nature flattened upon paper or metal, and 
Nature round and plump, as if fresh from the chisel of the 


Divine sculptor, must teach very different lessons to the 
aspiring artist. 

The historical painter, or the more humble artist who 
delineates the scenes of common or domestic life, will 
derive from the photographic camera and the stereoscope 
advantages of equal importance. The hero, the sage, and 
the martyr, drawn from living originals, may be placed in 
the scenes where they suffered, or in the localities which 
they hallowed. The lawgiver of Egypt, though he exists 
only in the painter's eye, may take his place beside the 
giant flanks of Horeb or the awe-inspiring summit of 
Mount Sinai ; and He whom we may not name may chal- 
lenge our love and admiration amid the sun-painted scenes 
of his youth, of his miracles, and of his humiliation. The 
fragments of ancient grandeur which time and war have 
spared, the relics of bygone ages which have resisted the 
destructive elements, will, as the materials of art, give 
reality and truth to the pictorial history of times past, 
while the painter of modern events can command the most 
accurate representations not only of the costume, but of the 
very persons of the great men whose deeds he is called 
upon to immortalize. The heroes of the Crimean war, 
whether friends or foes, will be descried in the trenches in 
which they fought, amid the ranks which they led to vic- 
tory, or among the wrecks of the fatal encounter in which 
they fell. The sun will thus become the historiographer 
of the future, and in the fidelity of his pencil and the 
accuracy of his chronicle, truth itself will be embalmed and 
history cease to be fabulous. 

But even in the narrower, though not less hallowed 
sphere of domestic life, where the magic names of kindred 


and home are inscribed, the realities of stereoscopic photo- 
graphy will excite the most thrilling interest. In the 
transition forms of his offspring, which link infancy with 
manhood, the parent will recognise the progress of his 
mortal career, and in the successive phases which mark the 
sunset of life, the stripling in his turn will read the lesson 
that his pilgrimage too has a term which must close. Nor 
are such delineations interesting only as works of art, or as 
incentives to virtue; they are instinct with associations 
vivid and endearing. The picture is connected with its 
original by sensibilities peculiarly tender. It was the very 
light which radiated from her brow, — the identical gleam 
which lighted up her eye, — the hectic flush or the pallid 
hue that hung upon her cheek, which pencilled the cherished 
image, and fixed themselves for ever there. 




To the arts of sculpture and architecture, the processes 
of binocular photography and stereoscopic combination are 
particularly applicable. The landscape painter has every day 
within his reach examples of the picturesque, the wild and 
the sublime in nature. In the fields which surround him, 
in the river, or even in the " brook that bubbles by," on 
the shore, on the heath, or on the mountain side, he has 
the choice of materials for every department of his art. 
The sculptor has no such advantage. Swathed in impene- 
trable drapery the human figure mocks his eager eye, and it 
is only by stolen glances, or during angel visits, few and 
far between, that he can see those divine forms which it is 
his business to portray. He must therefore quit his home 
and seek for the models of ancient and modern art. In 
the British Museum, in the Louvre, in the Vatican, and in 
the repositories of art in Berlin, Munich, and other European 
cities, he must spend months and years in the study of his 
profession. He must copy, day after day, those master 
triumphs of genius which the taste of ages has consecrated, 


and gather from their study the true principles of his art. 
Transferred to his own studio, these copies will be his 
instructor and his guide. They will exhibit to him forms 
more than human, though human still, embodying all that 
is true and beautiful in what might be man. The value 
of these copies, however, depends on the skill and care with 
which they have been taken ; but no labour however great, 
and no power of drawing however masterly, can give even 
an approximate idea either of the outline or round of solid 
figures, whether single or in groups. Light and shade can 
alone evolve those muscular prominences, or those soft and 
sphere-like relievos which give such power and beauty to 
forms, male and female ; but how can an artist catch and 
fix those lights and shades which give relief to the parts 
which they illuminate or obscure ] The light of the sun, 
even in a cloudless sky, is ever varying in intensity, 
and the breadth and direction of the shadows which he 
casts are varying from hour to hour. In a cloudy day, the 
motion of the clouds, and the varying reflexions within his 
apartment, subject the lights and shadows to constant 
change. The portions of the drawing executed in the 
morning will not harmonize with what is drawn at noon, 
or during the decline of day. We consider it, therefore, 
impossible to execute a drawing of a statue, or of a group 
of statues, from which the artist can have anything like an 
accurate idea of the forms which compose them. 

From all these difliculties the sculptor has been relieved 
by the invention of the photographic process. He may 
thus take copies of statues in a few minutes, and take them 
in all their aspects, and as seen at various distances, and 
in this manner he will obtain drawings with the shadows as 


they existed at a particular instant, so that the lights and 
shades, upon every individual part of the statue, will be 
correctly related to each other. But valuable as these 
drawings are, compared with those executed by the pencil, 
their value becomes tenfold greater when they are taken 
with the binocular camera, and with small lenses, as already 
described. When combined in the stereoscope, he may re- 
produce the statue in relief, in all its aspects, and of 
different sizes, and derive from its study the same advan- 
tages which the statue itself would have furnished. In 
one respect the creations of the stereoscope surpass the 
original. While the artist is surveying and drawing 
instruction from the marble prototype, its lights and 
shadows, and consequently the delicate forms, convex and 
concave, by which they are produced, are constantly chang- 
ing, whereas, in the stereoscopic statue, everything is fixed 
and invariable. 1 In taking busts and statues from the 
living subject, the sculptor will derive great advantage from 
the stereoscope. Double pictures of the whole, or of any 
portion of the subject, may be taken and raised into relief, 
and from such binocular pictures, executed on one side of 
the globe, an artist, on the other side, may complete an 
admirable statue. The dying and the dead may thus be 
modelled without the rude contact of a mask, and those 
noble forms perpetuated which affection or gratitude has 

We must warn the sculptor, however, against the employ- 
ment of binocular pictures taken with large lenses. Not 
only will the individual picture be deformed, but a double 

> A French sculptor has actually modelled a statue from the stereoscopic relief 
of binocular pictures. 


deformity will be induced by their union ; and whether he 
copies from a statue or from a living figure, his work must 
be defective, even to an ordinary eye. 

In architecture, and all those arts in which ornamental 
forms are given to solid materials, the binocular camera 
and the stereoscope will be found indispensable. The 
carvings of ancient, or mediaeval, or modern art may be 
copied and reproduced in relief, whatever be the material 
from which they have been cut. The rich forms of Gothic 
architecture, and the more classical productions of Greek 
and Roman genius, will swell the artist's portfolio, and 
possess all the value of casts. With the aid of the Ka- 
leidoscope the modern artist may surpass all his predeces- 
sors. He may create an infinite variety of those forms of 
symmetry which enter so largely into the decorative arts ; 
and if the individual forms, which constitute the symmetrical 
picture, are themselves solid, the binocular-kaleidoscopic 
pictures, taken photographically, will be raised into the 
original relief of their component parts, or they may be 
represented directly to the eye in relief, by semi-lenses 
placed at the ocular extremities of the reflecting plates. 1 
If the symmetrical forms are taken from lines in the 
same plane, no relief will be obtained from the kaleidoscopic 

But it is not merely to the decorative parts of architec- 
ture that the stereoscope is applicable. The noblest edifices, 
whether of a civil, a religious, or a military character, which 
he could otherwise study only as a traveller, and repre- 
sent in hurried and imperfect sketches, will, when taken 
binocularly, stand before him in their full relief and gran- 

1 See my Treatise on the Kaleidoscope, second edition, just published. 


deur, reflecting to his eye the very lights and shadows 
which at a given hour the sun cast upon their walls. 

In the erection of public buildings, hourly or daily pho- 
tographs have been taken of them, to shew to the absent 
superintendent the progress of his work ; but these pictures 
will be still more expressive if binocular ones are combined 
in the stereoscope. 

To the engineer and the mechanist, and the makers of 
instruments of all kinds, the stereoscope will be of ines- 
timable value. The difficulty of representing machinery is 
so great that it is not easy to understand its construction 
or its mode of operation from plans and perspective views 
of it. The union of one or two binocular pictures of it, 
when thrown into relief, will, in many cases, remove the 
difficulty both of drawing and understanding it. Photo- 
graphs of machinery, however, consisting of a number of 
minute parts at different distances from the eye, have, when 
taken by large lenses, all the defects which we explained 
in reference to trees and their branches and leaves. Sup- 
ports and axles will be transparent, and the teeth of the 
wheels, and the small and distant parts of the mechanism, 
will be seen through all the nearer parts whose width is 
less than the diameter of the lens. 

In taking a binocular picture of a machine or instru- 
ment consisting of various parts, that minute accuracy 
which is necessary to give the true form and expression of 
the human face is not required ; but if it should happen 
that, in a correct binocular view of the object, parts are 
concealed which it would be useful to see, we must dis- 
cover the binocular angle which will shew these parts in 


the two pictures, or, generally speaking, which will give 
the best view of the mechanism, and then adjust the lenses 
of the camera to give the desired representations of it. 
These observations will be found useful in obtaining stereo- 
scopic views of the structures in carpentry and ship- 




In treating of those objects of natural history which 
enter into the composition of landscape scenery, such as 
trees, plants, and rocks, we have pointed out the method 
of having them accurately drawn for the stereoscope ; but 
it is to the importance of stereoscopic photography in 
natural history as a science that we propose to devote the 
present Chapter. 

When we reflect upon the vast number of species which 
have been described by zoologists, the noble forms of ani- 
mated nature, whether wild or domesticated, and the 
valuable services which many of them perform as the 
slaves of man, we can hardly attach too much importance 
to the advantage of having them accurately delineated 
and raised into stereoscopic relief The animal painters of 
the present day, — the Landseers, the Cowpers, and the 
Ansdells, have brought this branch of their art to a high 
degree of perfection, but the subjects of their pencil have 
been principally dogs, horses, deer, and cattle, and a few 
other animals, with which they are well acquainted, and 
specimens of which were within their reach. To give 


accurate representations of giraffes, hyaenas, and the rarer 
animals which are found alive only in zoological gardens 
and travelling caravans, is a more difficult task, and one 
which has been necessarily intrusted to inferior hands. In 
this branch of his art the photographer is perplexed with 
the difficulty of arresting his subject in a position of repose 
and in the attitude which he requires. But this difficulty 
will diminish as his materials become more sensitive to 
light ; and means may be found for fixing, without con- 
straint, certain animals in the desired position. We have 
seen the portrait of a dog taken with such minute accuracy 
that the slightest trace of any motion could not be per- 
ceived. Its master directed his attention to a piece of 
bread, and he stood firmly waiting for his reward. Con- 
sidering truth as an essential element in all photographs, 
we are unwilling to counsel the artist to have recourse to 
a large lens for the purpose of accelerating his process by 
seizing his restless object in a single instant of time ; but 
what cannot be tolerated in the human form may be per- 
mitted in animal portraiture as a necessary evil. The 
divine lineaments and delicate forms which in man the 
intellect and the affections conspire to mould, are concealed 
under the shaggy drapery of the world of instinct ; and 
even if they existed and were perceived, could hardly be 
appreciated by those who have not studied its manners and 
submitted to its laws. But even in the present state of 
photography such a celerity of process has been attained 
that a distinguished amateur in Edinburgh has constructed 
a portable camera, which, by pulling a trigger, instantane- 
ously records upon its sensitive retina the surf which is 
hurrying to the shore, or the stranger who is passing in the 


street. With such an instrument, in such hands, the 
denizens of the jungle or of the plains may be taken 
captive in their finest attitudes and in their most restless 
moods. Photographs thus obtained will possess a value of 
no ordinary kind, and when taken in the binocular camera 
and raised into relief by the stereoscope, will be valuable 
auxiliaries to the naturalist, and even to the painters and 
the poets whose works or whose lyrics may require an 
introduction to the brutes that perish. 

In representing with accuracy the osteology and integu- 
ments of the zoological world — the framework which pro- 
tects life, and to which life gives activity and power, the 
aid of the stereoscope is indispensable. The repose of death, 
and the sharp pencil which resides in the small lens, will 
place before the student's eye the skeleton, clothed or un- 
clothed, in accurate perspective and true relief, while he 
contemplates with wonder, in their true apparent magni- 
tude, the gigantic Mastodon, the colossal Megatherion, and 
the huge Dinornis, or examines the crushed remains of the 
lengthened Saurian, or the hollow footsteps which ancient 
life has impressed on the massive sandstone or the indurated 

In the other branches of natural history, ichthyology, 
ornithology, conchology, &c, the stereoscope will be found 
equally useful. In entomology, where insects are to be 
represented, the microscopic binocular camera must be used; 
and in order to prevent the legs, the antennae, and other 
small parts of the object from being transparent, and there- 
fore spotted, with the images of objects or parts beyond 
them, as explained in a preceding chapter, the smallest 
lenses should be employed. 


The roots and bulbs which are raised by the agriculturist 
and the horticulturist, the turnip, the beet, the carrot, and 
the onion ; and the fruits raised in the orchard, on the 
wall, or in the hothouse, may be exhibited in all their 
roundness and solidity in the stereoscope ; and as articles 
of commerce they might be purchased on the authority of 
their pictures in relief. The microscopic stereoscope will, 
in like manner, give accurate magnified representations in 
relief of grains and seeds of all kinds, and by comparing 
these with the representations of those of a standard 
form and quality, the purchaser may be enabled to form a 
better idea of their excellence than if he saw them with 
his own eyes, or had them in his own hands. 




The observations contained in the preceding chapters 
prepare us for appreciating the value of the stereoscope as 
an indispensable auxiliary in elementary as well as in pro- 
fessional education. When the scholar has learned to read, 
to write, and to count, he has obtained only the tools of 
instruction. To acquire a general knowledge of the works 
of God and of man — of things common and uncommon — 
of the miracles of nature and of art, is the first step in the 
education of the people. Without such knowledge, the 
humblest of our race is unfit for any place in the social 
scale. He may have learned to read his Bible, and he may 
have read it after he had learned to read ; — he may have 
committed to memory every sentence in the Decalogue ; — 
he may have packed into the storehouse of his brain all the 
wisdom of Solomon, and all the divine precepts of a greater 
than Solomon, while he is utterly ignorant of everything 
above him, around him, and within him, — ignorant, too, of 
the form, the magnitude, and the motions of his terrestrial 
home, — ignorant of the gigantic structures which constitute 
the material universe, — ignorant of the fabrics which in- 
dustry prepares for his use, and of the luxuries which com- 



merce brings from the ends of the earth and places at his 
door, — ignorant even of the wonderful operations of that 
beneficent commissariat, which is every moment, while he 
sleeps and dreams, elaborating the materials by which he 
is fed and clothed. 

Were we to say, though we do not say it, that in our 
own country the teachers, so penuriously endowed by the 
State, are not much in advance of their pupils, we should 
err only in stating what is not universally true ; and yet 
there are men of influence and character insisting upon the 
imposition of sectarian tests, and thus barricading our 
schools against the admission of the wisest and the fittest 
masters ! And while every civilized community in the 
world is eagerly teaching their people, irrespective of reli- 
gious creeds, the same bigots, civil and ecclesiastical, in our 
own country, have combined to resist the only system of 
education which can stem the tide of vice and crime which 
is desolating the land. 

Missionary labour and reformatory institutions, valuable 
as they are, presuppose an educated community. To instruct 
and reform a race that can neither read their Bible nor 
derive knowledge from books, is a task beyond human 
achievement The dearest interests of society, therefore, 
call loudly for Secular Education, — the greatest boon which 
philanthropy ever demanded from the State. The minister 
who, in the face of sectarian factions, dares not identify him- 
self with a large legislative measure for the education of the 
people, and resigns office when he fails to carry it, prefers 
power to duty, and, if he ever possessed it, divests himself 
of the character of a statesman and a patriot He may be 
justified in punishing the law-breaker who cannot read his 


statutes, but he is himself the breaker of laws of a higher 
order, and sanctioned by a higher tribunal 

If the education of the people is to be attempted either 
by partial or comprehensive legislation, the existing system 
is utterly inefficient. The teacher, however wisely chosen 
and well qualified, has not at his command the means of 
imparting knowledge. He may pour it in by the ear, or 
extract it from the printed page, or exhibit it in caricature in 
the miserable embellishments of the school-book, but unless 
he teaches through the eye, the great instrument of know- 
ledge, by means of truthful pictures, or instruments, or 
models, or by the direct exhibition of the products of nature 
and of art, which can be submitted to the scrutiny of the 
senses, no satisfactory instruction can be conveyed 1 Every 
school, indeed, should have a museum, however limited and 
humble. Even from within its narrow sphere objects of 
natural history and antiquities might be collected, and 
duplicates exchanged ; and we are sure that many a 
chimney-piece in the district would surrender a tithe of its 
curiosities for the public use. Were the British Museum, 
and other overflowing collections, to distribute among pro- 
vincial museums the numerous duplicates which they possess, 
they would gradually pass into the schools, and before a 
quarter of a century elapsed, museums would be found in 
every proper locality. 

As we cannot indulge in the hope that any such boon 

1 " The importance of establishing % permanent Museum of Education in this 
country, with the view of introducing improvements in the existing methods of 
instruction, and specially directing public attention in a practical manner to the 
question of National Education, has been of late generally recognised." — Third 
Report of the Commissioners for the Exhibition 0/1851, presented to both Houses 
of Parliament, p. 37. Lond., 1856. 


will be conferred on our educational institutions, it becomes 
an important question how far it is possible to supply the 
defect by the means within our reach. The photographic 
process may be advantageously employed in producing accu- 
rate representations of those objects, both of nature and of 
art, which it would be desirable to describe and explain in 
the instruction of youth ; but as experience has not yet 
taught us that such pictures will be permanent, and capable 
of resisting the action of time and the elements, it would 
be hazardous to employ them in the illustration of popular 
works. It is fortunate, however, that the new art of 
galvanography enables us, by a cheap process, to give to 
photographs the permanence of engravings, and to employ 
them in the illustration of educational works. 1 

But however much we may value such an auxiliary, 
representations or drawings, on a plane, of solids or combi- 
nations of solids at different distances from the eye, are in 
many cases unintelligible even to persons well informed ; so 
that, on this ground alone, we cannot but appreciate the 
advantages to be derived from binocular pictures and their 
stereoscopic relievo, not only in the instruction of youth, 
but in the diffusion of knowledge among all ranks of 

One of the most palpable advantages to be derived from 
the illustration of school-books by pictures in relief, is the 
communication of correct knowledge of the various objects 
of natural history. If, as we have already shewn, the na- 
turalist derives important assistance in his studies from 

i This fine inrention we owe to Mr. Paul Pretsch, late director of the Imperial 
Printing Office at Vienna. It is secured by patent, and is now in practical opera- 
tion in Holloway Place, Islington. 


correct representations of animated nature, how much more 
valuable must they be to the scholar who never saw, and 
may never see the objects themselves. In the department 
of zoology, the picture might frequently be taken from the 
living animal, standing before the camera in vigorous life 
and transcendent beauty ; or when this cannot be done, from 
the fine specimens of zoological forms which adorn our 
metropolitan and provincial museums. The trees and 
plants, too, of distant zones, whether naked in their osteo- 
logy, or luxurious in their foliage, would shew themselves 
in full relief; — the banyan, clinging with its hundred roots 
to the ground, — the bread-fruit tree, with its beneficent 
burden, — the cow tree, with its wholesome beverage, — the 
caoutchouc tree, yielding its valuable juice, — or the deadly 
upas, preparing its poison for the arrow of the savage or 
the poniard of the assassin. 

With no less interest will the schoolboy gaze on the 
forms of insect life, which will almost flutter before him, 
and on the tenants of the air and of the ocean, defective 
only in the colours which adorn them. The structures of 
the inorganic world will equally command his admiration. 
The minerals which have grown in the earth beneath his 
feet, and the crystals which chemistry has conjured into 
being, will display to him their geometric forms, infinite in 
variety, and interesting from their rarity and value. Painted 
by the very light which streamed from them, he will see, 
in their retiring and advancing facets, the Kohinoor and 
other diamonds, and the huge rubies, and sapphires, and 
emeralds, which have adorned the chaplet of beauty, or 
sparkled in the diadem of kings. The gigantic productions 
of the earth will appeal to him with equal power, — the 


coloesal granites, which have travelled in chariots of ice, 
and the rounded boulders, which have been transported in 
torrents of mud; and while he admires, in their strong 
relief the precipices of ancient lava — the Doric colonnades 
of basalt — the upheaved and contorted strata beside them, 
and the undisturbed beds which no internal convulsions 
have shaken, he will stand appalled before the fossil giants 
of the primeval world that trod the earth during its prepa- 
ration for man, and have been embalmed in stone to instruct 
and to humble him. 

In acquiring a knowledge of physical geography, in which 
the grander aspects of nature arrest our attention, their 
stereoscopic representations will be particularly instructive. 
The mountain range, whether abrupt in its elevation, or 
retiring from our view, — whether scarred with peaks or 
undulating in outline, — the insulated mountain tipped with 
snow or glowing with fire, — the volcano ejecting its burning 
missiles, 1 — the iceberg fixed in the shore, or floating on the 
deep, — the deafening cataract, — the glacier and its moraines, 
sinking gently to the plains, — and even the colossal 
wave with its foaming crest, will be portrayed in the 
binocular camera, and exhibited in all the grandeur and 
life of nature. 

The works of human hands, — the structures of civilisa- 
tion, will stand before the historian and the antiquary, as 

1 An accomplished traveller, the Ber. Mr. Bridges, who ascended Mount Etna 
for the purpose of taking Talbotype drawings of its scenery, placed his camera on 
the edge of the crater to obtain a representation of it No sooner was the camera 
fixed and the senfeitiye paper introduced, than an eruption took place, which 
forced Mr. Bridges to quit his camera in order to sare his life. When the eruption 
closed, he returned to collect the fragments of his instrument, when, to his great 
surprise and delight, he found that his camera was not only uninjured, but con- 
tained a picture of the crater and its eruption. 


well as the student, in their pristine solidity, or in their 
ruined grandeur, — the monuments by which sovereigns and 
nations have sought to perpetuate their names, — the 
gorgeous palaces of kings, — the garish temples of supersti- 
tion, — the humbler edifices of Christian faith, — the bastions 
and strongholds of war, will display themselves in the 
stereoscope as if the observer were placed at their base, 
and warmed by the very sun which shone upon their 

Although few of our village youth may become sculptors, 
yet the exhibition of ancient statues in their actual relief, 
and real apparent magnitude, cannot fail to give them salu- 
tary instruction and rational pleasure. To gaze upon the 
Apollo Belvidere, — the Venus de Medici, — the Laocoon, 
and the other masterpieces of ancient art, standing in the 
very halls which they now occupy; or to see the chef 
cToeuvres of Canova, Thorvaldsen, and Ohantrey, or the pro- 
ductions of living artists in their own studio, with the 
sculptor himself standing by their side, will excite an in- 
terest of no ordinary kind. 

From the works of the architect, the engineer, and the 
mechanist, as exhibited in full relief, the student, whether 
at our schools or colleges, will derive the most valuable 
instruction. The gigantic aqueducts of ancient and 
modern times, — the viaducts and bridges which span our 
valleys and our rivers, and the machinery in our arsenals, 
factories, and workshops, will be objects of deep interest to 
the general as well as the professional inquirer. 

There is yet another application of the stereoscope 
to educational purposes, not less important than those 
which have been mentioned. In the production of diagram 


if^ g ^riiian g mfinoneats and apparatus, which cannot be 
asdentoad from drawings of them on a pisae. it will be of 
jacakniahie use to die teacher to hare stereoscopic jirtmrm 
of theam. In every hnmeh of physical science, diagiawa of 
lids kind art required. When they art huteaded to repre- 
sent apparssas and instruments, ether far iDaBtatissj 
sjm/*h troths, or caiiiing on physical researches, bouoolar 
pictures can be easily obtained ; but when the dJagmm 
bare not been taken from apparatus, but ape merely cosa- 
hjnariflns of hues, we can oteain binocular photographs of 
them only from models constructed cm purpose, These 
models will give binocular representations in various 
*armTTt->tR t so thai the true positicm of pV"*?*** at tfifiuiwt 
inrlinatiom and lines at various angles with eacb other, 
and at different distances from the eye. will be readily 
apprehended. .Astronomical diacisins, in which orbits, OuC_ 
may be represented by wires, and optical figures, in which 
the rays may be fanned by threads or wires, would be tans 
easily executed. 

Among the binocular diagrams, consisting of white lines 
upon a black ground, which hare been executed in Paris, 
there is one representing the apparatus in which a ray of 
light, polarised by reflexion from a glass plate, passes 
through a crystallised film perpendicular to the plane of 
the paper, and is subsequently analysed by reflexion tram 
another plate at right angle to the following plate, This 
diagram, when placed in relief by the stereoscope, gives as 
correct an idea of the process as the apparatus itself 

As an auxiliary in the investigation of questions of diflB- 
00% and importance, both in physics and metaphysics, the 
stereoscope is peculiarly valuable. It enables us to place 


in its true light the celebrated theory of vision on which 
Bishop Berkeley reared the ideal philosophy, of which he 
was the founder, and it gives us powerful aid in explaining 
many physical phenomena which have long baffled the inge- 
nuity of philosophers. It would be out of place to give any 
account of these in a work like this, but there is one so 
remarkable, and at the same time so instructive, as to merit 
special notice. In order to exhibit, by means of three dia- 
grams, a solid in relief and hollow at the same time, which 
had not been previously done, I executed three drawings of 
the frustum of a cone, resembling those in Fig. 31, so that 
the left-hand one and the middle one gave the hollow cone, 
while the middle one and the right-hand one gave the raised 
cone. Having their summits truncated, as in the figure, 
the cones exhibit, in the one case, a circle at the bottom of 
the hollow cone, and in the other, a circle on the summit 
of the raised cone. When these three diagrams 1 are placed 
in an open lenticular stereoscope, or are united by the con- 
vergency of the optical axes, so that we can not only see 
the hallow and the raised cones, but the flat drawing on 
each side of them, we are enabled to give an ocular and 
experimental proof of the cause of the large size of the hori- 
zontal moon, of her small size when in the meridian or at a 
great altitude, and of her intermediate apparent magnitude 
at intermediate altitudes, — phenomena which had long per- 
plexed astronomers, and which Dr. Berkeley, rejecting pre- 
vious and well-founded explanations, ascribed to the different 
degrees of brightness of the moon in these different positions. 

A binocular slide, copied from the one originally designed by myself, forms 
No. 27 of the Series of white-lined diagrams upon a black ground executed in 
Paris. The drawings, however, are too large for the common stereosqppe. 


As the circular summit of the raised cone appears to be 
nearest the eye of the observer, the summit of the hollow 
cone farthest off, and the similar central circle in the flat 
drawing on each side, at an intermediate distance, the 
apparent distances from the eye of different and equal 
circles will represent the apparent distance of the moon in 
the zenith, or very high in the elliptical celestial vault, — 
the same distance when she is in the horizon, and the same 
when' at an intermediate altitude. Being in reality of 
exactly the same size, and at the same distance from the 
eye, these circular summits, or sections of the cone, are 
precisely in the same circumstances as the moon in the 
three positions already mentioned. If we now contemplate 
them in the lenticular stereoscope, we shall see the circular 
summit of the hollow cone the largest, like the horizontal 
moon, because it seems to be at the greatest distance from 
the eye, — the circular summit of the raised cone the smallest, 
because it appears at the least distance, like the zenith or 
culminating moon, — and the circular summits of the flat 
cones on each side, of an intermediate size, like the moon 
at an intermediate altitude, because their distance from 
the eye is intermediate. The same effect will be equally 
well seen by placing three small wafers of the same size 
and colour on the square summits of the drawings of the 
quadrangular pyramids, or more simply, by observing the 
larger size of the square summit of the hollow pyramid. 

This explanation of the cause of the increased size of the 
horizontal moon is rigorously correct. If any person should 
suspect that the circles which represent the moon are un- 
equal in size, or are at different distances from the eye, they 
have only to cut the diagram into three parts, and make 


each drawing of the frustum of the cone occupy a different 
place in the binocular slide, and they will obtain the very 
same results. Hence we place beyond a doubt the incor- 
rectness of Dr. Berkeley's theory of the size of the horizontal 
moon, — a theory to which the stereoscope enables us to 
apply another test, for if we make one or more of these 
circles less bright than the rest, no change whatever will 
be produced in their apparent magnitude. 




Every experiment in science, and every instrument de- 
pending on scientific principles, when employed for the 
purpose of amusement, must necessarily be instructive. 
" Philosophy in sport" never fails to become " Science in 
earnest." The toy which amuses the child will instruct 
the sage, and many an eminent discoverer and inventor can 
trace the pursuits which immortalize them to some experi- 
ment or instrument which amused them at school The 
soap bubble, the kite, the balloon, the water wheel, the 
sun-dial, the burning-glass, the magnet, &c, have all been 
valuable incentives to the study of the sciences. 

In a list of about 150 binocular pictures issued by the 
London Stereoscopic Company, under the title of " Miscel- 
laneous Subjects of the * Wilkie ' character," there are many 
of an amusing kind, in which scenes in common life are 
admirably represented. Following out the same idea, the 
most interesting scenes in our best comedies and tragedies 
might be represented with the same distinctness and relief 
as if the actors were on the stage. Events and scenes in 
ancient and modern history might be similarly exhibited, 
and in our day, binocular pictures of trials, congresses, 


political, legislative, and religious assemblies, in which the 
leading actors were represented, might be provided for the 

For the purpose of amusement, the photographer might 
carry us even into the regions of the supernatural. His 
art, as I have elsewhere shewn, enables him to give a spiri- 
tual appearance to one or more of his figures, and to exhibit 
them as " thin air" amid the solid realities of the stereo- 
scopic picture. While a party is engaged with their whist 
or their gossip, a female figure appears in the midst of them 
with all the attributes of the supernatural. Her form is 
transparent, every object or person beyond her being seen 
in shadowy but distinct outline. She may occupy more 
than one place in the scene, and different portions of the 
group might be made to gaze upon one or other of the 
visions before them. In order to produce such a scene, the 
parties which are to compose the group must have their 
portraits nearly finished in the binocular camera, in the 
attitude which they may be supposed to take, and with 
the expression which they may be supposed to assume, 
if the vision were real When the party have nearly 
sat the proper length of time, the female figure, suit- 
ably attired, walks quickly into the place assigned her, 
and after standing a few seconds in the proper attitude, 
retires quickly, or takes as quickly, a second or even a 
third place in the picture if it is required, in each of 
which she remains a few seconds, so that her picture in 
these different positions may be taken with sufficient dis- 
tinctness in the negative photograph. If this operation has 
been well performed, all the objects immediately behind the 
female figure, having been, previous to her introduction, 


impressed upon the negative surface, will be seen through 
her, and she will have the appearance of an aerial personage, 
unlike the other figures in the picture. This experiment 
may be varied in many ways. One body may be placed 
within another, a chicken, for example, within an egg, and 
singular effects produced by combining plane pictures with 
solid bodies in the arrangement of the persons and things 
placed before the binocular camera. Any individual in a 
group may appear more than once in the same picture, either 
in two or more characters, and no difficulty will be expe- 
rienced by the ingenious photographer in giving to these 
double or triple portraits, when it is required, the same 
appearance as that of the other parties who have not changed 
their place. In groups of this kind curious effects might 
be produced by placing a second binocular slide between 
the principal slide and the eye, and giving it a motion 
within the stereoscope. The figures upon it must be 
delineated photographically upon a plate of glass, through 
which the figures on the principal slide are seen, and the 
secondary slide must be so close to the other that the 
figures on both may be distinctly visible, if distinct vision 
is required for those which are to move. 

Another method of making solid figures transparent in a 
photograph has been referred to in the preceding chapter, and 
may be employed in producing amusing combinations. The 
transparency is, in this case, produced by using a large lens, 
the margin of which receives the rays which issue from bodies, 
or parts of bodies, situated behind other bodies, or parts of 
bodies, whose images are given in the photograph. The body 
thus rendered transparent must be less in superficial extent 
than the lens, and the body seen through it must be so far 


behind it that rays emanating from it would fall upon some 
part of the lens, the luminosity of this body on the photo- 
graph being proportional to the part of the surface of the 
lens upon which the rays fall This will be readily under- 
stood from Figs. 48 and 49, and their description, and the 
ingenious photographer will have no difficulty in producing 
very curious effects from this property of large object-glasses. 
One of the most interesting applications of the stereo- 
scope is in combining binocular pictures, constructed like 
the plane picture, used in what has been called the cosmo- 
rama for exhibiting dissolving views. These plane pictures 
are so constructed, that when we view them by reflected 
light, as pictures are generally viewed, we see a particular 
scene, such as the Chamber of Deputies in its external 
aspect ; but when we allow no light to fall upon it, but 
view it by transmitted light, we see the interior of the 
building brilliantly lighted up, and the deputies listening 
to the debate. In like manner, the one picture may repre- 
sent two armies in battle array, while the other may repre- 
sent them in action. A cathedral in all its architectural 
beauty may be combined with the same building in the act 
of being burned to the ground ; or a winter scene covered 
with snow may be conjoined with a landscape glowing with 
the warmth and verdure of summer. In the cosmorama, 
the reflected light which falls upon the front of the one 
picture is obtained by opening a lid similar to that of the 
stereoscope, as shewn at CD, Fig. 14, while another lid 
opening behind the picture stops any light which might 
pass through it, and prevents the second picture from being 
seen. If, when the first picture is visible, we gradually 
open the lid behind it, and close the lid cd before it, it 


gradually disappears, or dissolves, and the second picture 
gradually appears till the first vanishes and the second 
occupies its place. A great deal of ingenuity is displayed 
by the Parisian artists in the composition of these pictures, 
and the exhibition of them, either in small portable instru- 
ments held in the hand, or placed on the table, or on a 
great scale, to an audience, by means of the oxygen and 
hydrogen light, never fails to excite admiration. 

The pictures thus exhibited, though finely executed, have 
only that degree of relief which I have called monocular, 
and which depends on correct shading and perspective ; 
but when the dissolving views are obtained from binocular 
pictures, and have all the high relief given them by their 
stereoscopic combination, the effect must be singularly 

Very interesting and amusing effects are produced by 
interchanging the right and the left eye pictures in the 
stereoscope. In general, what was formerly convex is now 
concave, what was round is hollow, and what was near is 
distant. The effect of this interchange is finely seen in the 
symmetrical diagrams, consisting of white lines upon black 
ground, such as Nos. 1, 5, 9, 12, 18 and 27 of the Parisian 
set ; but when the diagrams are not symmetrical, that is, 
when the one half is not the reflected image of the other, 
such as Nos. 26, &c, which are transparent polygonal solids, 
formed as it were by white threads or wires, no effect, be- 
yond a slight fluttering, is perceived. As the right and 
left eye pictures are inseparable when on glass or silver 
plate, the experiments must be made by cutting in two the 
slides on Bristol board. This, however, is unnecessary 
when we have the power of uniting the two pictures by the 


convergency of the optic axes to a nearer point, as we 
obtain, in this case, the same effect as if we had inter- 
changed the pictures. The following are some of the 
results obtained in this manner from well-known slides : — 

In single portraits no effect is produced by the inter- 
change of the right and left eye pictures. If any loose 
part of the dress is in the foreground it may be carried 
into the distance, and vice versa. In one portrait, the end 
of the hat-band, which hung down loosely behind the party, 
was made to hang in front of it. 

In pictures of streets or valleys, and other objects in 
which the foreground is connected with the middle-ground, 
and the middle-ground with the distance, without any 
break, no effect is produced by the interchange. Some- 
times there is a little bulging out of the middle distance, 
injurious to the monocular effect. 

In the binocular picture of the Bridge of Handeck, the 
Chalet in the foreground retires, and the middle distance 
above it advances. 

In the picture of the sacristy of Notre Dame, the sa- 
cristy retires within the cathedral. 

In the Maison des Chapiteaux at Pompeii, the picture is 
completely inverted, the objects in the distance coming into 
the foreground. 

In the Daguerreotype of the Crystal Palace, the water 
in the foreground, with the floating plants, retires and 
takes an inclined position below a horizontal plane. 

In the binocular picture of the lower glacier of Rosenlaui, 
the roof of the ice-cave becomes hollow, and the whole 
foreground is thrown into a disordered perspective. 

In Copeland's Venus, the arm holding the bunch of 


grapes is curiously bent and thrown behind the head, 
while the left arm advances before the child. 

In the picture of the Greek Court in the Crystal Palace, 
the wall behind the statues and columns advances in front 
of them. 

The singular fallacy in vision which thus takes place is 
best seen in a picture where a number of separate articles 
are placed upon a table, and in other cases where the 
judgment of the spectator is not called upon to resist the 
optical effect. Although the nose of the human face should 
retire behind the ears yet no such effect is produced, as all 
the features of the face are connected with each other, but 
if the nose and ears had been represented separately in the 
position which they occupy in the human head, the nearer 
features would have retired behind the more remote ones, 
like the separate articles on a table. 

We shall have occasion to resume this subject in our 
concluding chapter on the fallacies which take place in 
viewing solids, whether raised or hollow, and whether seen 
by direct or inverted vision. 




Those who are desirous of having stereoscopic relievos of 
absent or deceased Mends, and who possess single photo- 
graphic portraits of them, or even oil paintings or miniatures, 
will be anxious to know whether or not it is possible to 
obtain from one plane picture another which could be com- 
bined with it in the stereoscope ; that is, if we consider 
the picture as one seen by either eye alone, can we by any 
process obtain a second picture as seen by the other eye 9 
We have no hesitation in saying that it is impossible to do 
this by any direct process. 

Every picture, whether taken photographically or by the 
eye, is necessarily a picture seen by one eye, or from one 
point of sight ; and, therefore, a skilful artist, who fully 
understands the principle of the stereoscope, might make 
a copy of any picture as seen by the other eye, so approx- 
imately correct as to appear in relief when united with the 
original in the stereoscope ; but the task would be a very 
difficult one, and if well executed, so as to give a relievo 
without distortion, the fortune of the painter would be 


When the artist executes a portrait, he does it from one 
point of sight, which we may suppose fixed, and corre- 
sponding with that which is seen with his left eye. If 
he takes another portrait of the same person, occupying 
exactly the same position, from another point of sight, 
two and a half inches to the right of himself, as seen with 
his right eye, the two pictures will differ only in this, that 
each point in the head, and bust, and drapery, will, in the 
second picture, be cairied farther to the left of the artist on 
the plane of representation. The points which project 
most, or are most distant from that plane, will be carried 
farther to the left than those which project less, the extent 
to which they are carried being proportional to the amount 
of their projection, or their distance from the plane. But 
since the painter cannot discover from the original or left- 
eye plane picture the degree of prominence of the leading 
points of the head, the bust, and the drapery, he must 
work by guess, and submit his empirical touches, step by 
step, to the judgment of the stereoscope. In devoting 
himself to this branch of the art he will doubtless acquire 
much knowledge and dexterity from experience, and may 
succeed to a very considerable extent in obtaining pictures 
in relief, if he follows certain rules, which we shall en- 
deavour to explain. 

If the given portrait, or picture of any kind, is not 
of the proper size for the stereoscope, it must be reduced to 
that size, by taking a photographic copy of it, from which 
the right-eye picture is to be drawn. 

In order to diminish the size of the diagram, let us 
suppose that the plane on which the portrait is taken 
touches the back of the head, and is represented in section 




by ab, Fig. 50. We must now assume, under the guid- 
ance of the original, a certain form of the head, whose 
breadth from ear to ear is ee", n being the point of the 

nose in the horizontal section of the head, e'nen', pass- 
ing through the nose n, and the lobes ee" of the two ears. 
Let l,r be the left and right eyes of the person viewing 
them, and ln the distance at which they are viewed, and 


let lines be drawn from l and b, through l,n,b and e", 
meeting the plane ab on which the portrait is taken in 
4, if", n, tf, e, and tf. The breadth, e"V, and the distances 
of the nose from the ears n'e', n'e"', being given by 
measurement of the photograph suited to the stereoscope, 
the distances nn*, ee*, e"e"' may be approximately obtained 
from the known form of the human head, either by pro- 
jection or calculation. With these data, procured as 
correctly as we can, we shall, from the position of the nose 
n, as seen by the right eye s, have the formula 

_. LBxNN' 

* n = HL ' 

The distance of the right ear e', from the right-eye 
picture, will be, 

ne 1 = e'N — N*ft; and as He = 



The distance of the left ear e, in the right-eye picture, from 
the nose n, will be 

ne = n't* + N^ — He. 
In order to simplify the diagram we have made the original, 
or left-eye picture, a front view, in which the nose is in 
the middle of the face, and the line joining the ears parallel 
to the plane of the picture. 

When the position of the nose and the ears has been 
thus approximately obtained, the artist may, in like manner, 
determine the place of the pupils of the two eyes, the point 
of the chin, the summit of the eyebrows, the prominence 
of the lips, and the junction of the nose with the teeth, by 
assuming, under the guidance of the original picture, the 
distance of these different parts from the plane of projec- 
tion. In the same way other leading points in the figure 
and drapery may be found, and if these points are deter- 


mined with tolerable accuracy the artist will be able to 
draw the features in their new place with such correctness 
as to give a good result in the stereoscope. 

In drawing the right-eye picture the artist will, of 
course, employ as the groundwork of it a faint photo- 
graphic impression of the original, or left-eye picture, and 
he may, perhaps, derive some advantage from placing the 
original, when before the camera, at such an inclination to 
the axis of the lens as will produce the same diminution in 
the horizontal distance between any two points in the 
head, at a mean distance between n and rf, as projected 
upon the plane ab. The line iTE" 1 , for example, which in 
the left-eye photograph is a representation of the cheek 
NE", is reduced, in the right-eye photograph, to n#, and, 
therefore, if the photograph on ab, as seen by the right 
eye, were placed so obliquely to the axis of the lens that 
Hf'e was reduced to nd, the copy obtained in the camera 
would have an approximate resemblance to the right-eye 
picture required, and might be a better groundwork for the 
right-eye picture than an accurate copy of the photograph on 
ab, taken when it is perpendicular to the axis of the lens. 

In preparing the right-eye picture, the artist, in place of 
using paint, might use very dilute solutions of aceto-nitrate 
of silver, beginning with the faintest tint, and darkening 
these with light till he obtained the desired effect, and, 
when necessary, diminishing the shades with solutions of 
the hypo-sulphite of soda. When the picture is finished, 
and found satisfactory, after examining its relief in the 
stereoscope, a negative picture of it should be obtained in 
the camera, and positive copies taken, to form, with the ori- 
ginal photographs, the pair of binocular portraits required. 




In a preceding chapter I have explained a remarkable 
fallacy of sight which takes place in the stereoscope when we 
interchange the binocular pictures, that is, when we place 
the right-eye picture on the left side, and the left-eye 
picture on the right side. The objects in the foreground 
of the picture are thus thrown into the background, and, 
vice versa, the same effect, as we have seen, takes place when 
we unite the binocular pictures, in their usual position, by 
the ocular stereoscope, that is, by converging the optic 
axes to a point between the eye and the pictures. In both 
these cases the objects are only the plane representations of 
solid bodies, and the change which is produced by their 
union is not in their form but in their position. In certain 
cases, however, when the object is of some magnitude in 
the picture, the form is also changed in consequence of the 
inverse position of its parts. That is, the drawings of 
objects that are naturally convex will appear concave, 
and those which are naturally concave will appear convex. 

In these phenomena there is no mental illusion in their 
production. The two similar points in each picture, if 
they are nearer to one another than other two similar 


points, must, in conformity with the laws of vision, appear 
nearer the eye when combined in the common stereoscope. 
When this change of place and form does not appear, as in 
the case of the human figure, previously explained, it is by 
a mental illusion that the law of vision is controlled. 

The phenomena which we are about to describe are, in 
several respects, different from those to which we have re- 
ferred. They are seen in monocular as well as in binocular 
vision, and they are produced in all cases under a mental 
illusion, arising either from causes over which we have no . 
control, or voluntarily created and maintained by the 
observer. The first notice of this class of optical illusion 
was given by Aguilonius in his work on optics, to which 
we have already had occasion to refer. 1 After proving 
that convex and concave surfaces appear plane when seen 
at a considerable distance, he shews that the same surfaces, 
when seen at a moderate distance, frequently appear what 
he calls converse, that is, the concave convex, and the con- 
vex concave. This conversion of forms, he says, is often 
seen in the globes or balls which are fixed on the walls of 
fortifications, and he ascribes the phenomena to the circum- 
stance of the mind being imposed upon from not knowing 
in what direction the light falls upon the body. He states 
that a concavity differs from a convexity only in this re- 
spect, that if the shadow is on the same side as that from 
which the light comes it is a concavity, and if it is on the 
opposite side, it is a convexity. Aguilonius observes also, 
that in pictures imitating nature, a similar mistake is com- 
mitted as to the form of surfaces. He supposes that a 
circle is drawn upon a table and shaded on one side so as 

» See Chap. L p. Iff. 


to represent a convex or a concave surface. When this 
shaded circle is seen at a great distance, it appears a plane 
surface, notwithstanding the shadow on one side of it ; but 
when we view it at a short distance, and suppose the light 
to come from the same side of it as the part not in shadow, 
the plane circle will appear to be a convexity, and if we 
suppose the light to come from the same side as the shaded 
part, the circle will appear to be a concavity. 

More than half a century after the time of Aguilonius, a 
member of the Royal Society of London, at one of the 
meetings of that body, when looking at a guinea through a 
compound microscope which inverted the object, was sur- 
prised to see the head upon the coin depressed, while other 
members were not subject to this illusion. 

Dr. Philip Gmelin 1 of Wurtemberg, having learned from 
a friend, that when a common seal is viewed through a 
compound microscope, the depressed part of the seal appeared 
elevated, and the elevated part depressed, obtained the same 
result, and found, as Aguilonius did, that the effect was 
owing to the inversion of the shadow by the microscope. 
One person often saw the phenomena and another did not, 
and no effect was produced when a raised object was so 
placed between two windows as to be illuminated on all 

In 1780 Mr. Rittenhouse, an American writer, repeated 
these experiments with an inverting eye-tube, consisting of 
two lenses placed at a distance greater than the sum of 
their focal lengths, and he found that when a reflected light 
was thrown on a cavity, in a direction opposite to that of 
the light which came from his window, the cavity was 

i Phil. Trans. 1744. 


raised into an elevation by looking through a tube without 
any lens. In this experiment the shadow was inverted, 
just as if he had looked through his inverting eye-tube. 

In studying this subject I observed a number of singular 
phenomena, which I have described in my Letters on 
Natural Magic, 1 but as they were not seen by binocular 
vision I shall mention only some of the more important 
facts. If we take one of the intaglio moulds used by the 
late Mr. Henning for his bas-reliefs, and direct the eye to 
it steadily, without noticing surrounding objects, we may 
distinctly see it as a bas-relief. After a little practice I 
have succeeded in raising a complete hollow mask of the 
human face, the size of life, into a projecting head. This 
result is very surprising to those who succeed in the experi- 
ment, and it will no doubt be regarded by the sculptor who 
can use it as an auxiliary in his art. 

Till within the last few years, no phenomenon of this 
kind, either as seen with one or with two eyes, had been 
noticed by the casual observer. Philosophers alone had 
been subject to the illusion, or had subjected others to its 
influence. The following case, however, which occurred to 
Lady Georgiana Wolff, possesses much interest, as it could 
not possibly have been produced by any voluntary effort. 
" Lady Georgiana," says Dr. Joseph Wolff in his Journal, 
" observed a curious optical deception in the sand, about 
the middle of the day, when the sun was strong : all the 
footprints, and other marks that are indented in the sand, 
had the appearance of being raised out of it. At these 
times there was such a glare, that it was unpleasant for the 

1 Letter v. pp. 98-107. See also the Edinburgh Journal of Science, Jan. 1826, 
vol. iv. p. 99. 

MO TAUJlCJSS js veiox. CHAP. XVI. 

eye.** 1 Having no doubt of the correctness of this obser- 
vation, I have often endeavoured, though in Tain, to wit- 
ness so remarkable a phenomenon. In walking, however, 
in the month of March last, with a friend on the beach at 
St. Andrews, the phenomenon presented itsel£ at the same 
instant, to myself and to a lady who was unacquainted 
with this class of illusions. The impressions of the feet of 
men and of horses were distinctly raised out of the sand. In 
a short time they resumed their hoUow form, but at differ- 
ent places the phenomenon again presented itseH sometimes 
to myself sometimes to the lady, and sometimes to both of 
us simultaneously. The sun was near the horizon on our 
left hand, and the white surf of the sea was on our right, 
strongly reflecting the solar rays. It is very probable that 
the illusion arose from our considering the light as coming 
from the white surf, in which case the shadows in the 
hollow foot-prints were such as could only be produced by 
foot-prints raised from the sand, as if they were in relief It 
is possible that, when the phenomenon was observed by 
Lady Georgian* Wolff, there may have been some source 
of direct or reflected light opposite to the sun, or some un- 
usual brightness of the clouds, if there were any in that 
quarter, which gave rise to the illusion. 

When these illusions, whether monocular or binocular, 
are produced by an inversion of the shadow, either real or 
supposed, they are instantly dissipated by holding a pin in 
the field of view, so as to indicate by its shadow the real 
place of the illuminating body. The figure will appear 
raised or depressed, according to the knowledge which we 
obtain of the source of light, by introducing or withdrawing 

* JtfttriMU&ft, pas* 


the pin. When the inversion is produced by the eye-piece 
of a telescope, or a compound microscope, in which the field 
of view is necessarily small, we cannot see the illuminating 
body and the convex or concave object (the cameo or 
intaglio) at the same time ; but if we use a small inverting 
telescope, 1£ or 2 inches long, such as that shewn at mn, 
Fig. 36, we obtain a large field of view, and may see at 
the same time the object and a candle placed beside it. In 
this case the illusion will take place according as the candle 
is seen beside the object or withdrawn. 

If the object is a white tea-cup, or bowl, however large, 
and if it is illuminated from behind the observer, the re- 
flected image of the window will be in the concave bottom 
of the tea-cup, and it will not rise into a convexity if the 
illumination from surrounding objects is uniform ; but if 
the observer moves a little to one side, so that the reflected 
image of the window passes from the centre of the cup, 
then the cup will rise into a convexity, when seen through 
the inverting telescope, in consequence of the position of 
the luminous image, which could occupy its place only upon 
a convex surface. If the concave body were cut out of a 
piece of chalk, or pure unpolished marble, it would appear 
neither convex nor concave, but flat. 

Very singular illusions take place, both with one and two 
eyes, when the object, whether concave or convex, is a hollow 
or an elevation in or upon a limited or extended surface — 
that is, whether the surface occupies the whole visible field, 
or only a part of it. If we view, through the inverting 
telescope or eye-piece, a dimple or a hemispherical cavity in 
a broad piece of wood laid horizontally on the table, and 
illuminated by quaquavemu light, like that of the sky, it 


will instantly rise into an elevation, the end of the telescope 
or eye-piece resting on the surface of the wood. The change 
of form is, therefore, not produced by the inversion of the 
shadow, but by another cause. The surface in which the 
cavity is made is obviously inverted as well as the cavity, 
that is, it now looks downward in place of upward ; but it 
does not appear so to the observer leaning upon the table, 
and resting the end of his eye-piece upon the wooden surface 
in which the cavity is made. The surface seems to him to 
remain where it was, and still to look upwards, in place of 
looking downwards. If the observer strikes the wooden 
surface with the end of the eye-piece, this conviction is 
strengthened, and he believes that it is the lower edge of 
the field of view, or object-glass, that strikes the apparent 
wooden surface or rests upon it, whereas the wooden surface 
has been inverted, and optically separated from the lower 
edge of the object-glass. 

In order to make this plainer, place a pen upon a sheet 
of paper with the quill end nearest you, and view it through 
the inverting telescope : The quill end will appear farthest 
from you, and the paper will not appear inverted. In like 
manner, the letters on a printed page are inverted, the 
top of each letter being nearest the observer, while the 
paper seems to retain its usual place. Now in both these 
cases the paper is inverted as well as the quill and the 
letters, and in reality the image of the quill and of the pen, 
and of the lower end of the letters, is nearest the observer. 
Let us next place a tea-cup on its side upon the table, with 
its concavity towards the observer, and view it through the 
inverting telescope. It will rise into a convexity, the nearer 
margin of the cup appearing farther off than the bottom, 


If we place a short pen within the cup, measuring as it 
were its depth, and having its quill end nearest the ob- 
server, the pen will be inverted, in correspondence with the 
conversion of the cup into a convexity, the quill end appear- 
ing more remote, like the margin of the cup which it 
touches, and the feather end next the eye like the summit 
of the convex cup on which it rests. 

In these experiments, the conversion of the concavity into 
a convexity depends on two separate illusions, one of which 
springs from the other. The first illusion is the erroneous 
conviction that the surface of the table is looking upwards 
as usual, whereas it is really inverted ; and the second 
illusion, which arises from the first, is, that the nearest 
point of the object appears farthest from the eye, whereas 
it is nearest to it. All these observations are equally appli- 
cable to the vision of. convexities, and hence it follows, that 
the conversion of relief, caused by the use of an inverting 
eye-piece, is not produced directly by the inversion, but by 
an illusion arising from the inversion, in virtue of which we 
believe that the remotest side of the convexity is nearer our 
eye than the side next us. 

In order to demonstrate the correctness of this explana- 
tion, let the hemispherical cavity be made in a stripe of 
wood, narrower than the field of the inverting telescope with 
which it is viewed. It will then appear really inverted, 
and free from both the illusions which formerly took place. 
The thickness of the stripe of wood is now distinctly seen, 
and the inversion of the surface, which now looks downward, 
immediately recognised. The edge of the cavity now ap- 
pears nearest the eye, as it really is, and the concavity, though 
inverted, still appear* a concavity. The same effect is pro- 


duced when a convexity is placed on a narrow stripe of 

Some curious phenomena take place when we view, at 
different degrees of obliquity, a hemispherical cavity raised 
into a convexity. At every degree of obliquity from 0° to 
90°, that is, from a vertical to a horizontal view of it, the 
elliptical margin of the convexity will always be visible, 
which is impossible in a real convexity, and the elevated 
apex will gradually sink till the elliptical margin becomes 
a straight line, and the imaginary convexity completely 
levelled. The struggle between truth and error is here so 
singular, that while one part of the object has become con- 
cave, the other part retains its convexity ! 

In like manner, when a convexity is seen as a concavity, 
the concavity loses its true shape as it is viewed more and 
more obliquely, till its remote elliptical margin is en- 
croached upon, or eclipsed, by the apex of the convexity ; 
and towards an inclination of 90° the concavity disap- 
pears altogether, under circumstances analogous to those 
already described. 

If in place of using an inverting telescope we invert the 
concavity, by looking at its inverted image in the focus of 
a convex lens, it will sometimes appear a convexity and 
sometimes not. In this form of the experiment the image 
of the concavity, and consequently its apparent depth, is 
greatly diminished, and therefore any trivial cause, such as 
a preconception of the mind, or an approximation to a 
shadow, or a touch of the concavity by the point of the 
finger, will either produce a conversion of form or dis- 
sipate the illusion when it is produced. 

In the preceding Chapter we have supposed the con- 


vexity to be high and the concavity deep and circular, and 
we hare supposed them also to be shadowless, or illumi- 
nated by a quaquaversus light, such as that of the sky 
in the open fields. This was done in order to get rid 
of all secondary causes which might interfere with and 
modify the normal cause, when the concavities are shal- 
low, and the convexities low and have distinct shadows, 
or when the concavity, as in seals, has the shape of an 
animal or any body which we are accustomed to see in 

Let us now suppose that a strong shadow is thrown 
upon the concavity. In this case the normal experiment 
is much more perfect and satisfactory. The illusion is 
complete and invariable when the concavity is in or 
upon an extended surface, and it as invariably disap- 
pears, or rather is not produced, when it is in a narrow 

In the secondary forms of the experiment, the inversion 
of the shadow becomes the principal cause of the illusion ; 
but in order that the result may be invariable, or nearly 
so, the concavities must be shallow and the convexities 
but slightly raised. At great obliquities, however, this 
cause of the conversion of form ceases to produce the 
illusion, and in varying the inclination from 0° to 90° 
the cessation takes place sooner with deep than with 
shallow cavities. The reason of this is that the shadow of 
a concavity is very different at great obliquities from the 
shadow of a convexity. The shadow never can emerge 
out of a cavity so as to darken the surface in which the 
cavity is made, whereas the shadow of a convexity soon 
extends beyond the outline of its base, and finally throws 


a long stripe of darkness over the surface on which 
it rests. Hence it is impossible to mistake a con- 
vexity for a concavity when its shadow extends beyond 
its base. 

When the concavity upon a seal is a horse, or any other 
animal, it will often rise into a convexity when seen through 
a single lens, which does not invert it ; but the illusion 
disappears at great obliquities. In this case, the illusion 
is favoured or produced by two causes ; the first is, that the 
form of the horse or other animal in relief is the one 
which the mind is most disposed to seize, and the second 
is, that we use only one eye, with which we cannot measure 
depths as well as with two. The illusion, however, still 
takes place when we employ a lens three or more inches 
wide, so as to permit the use of both eyes, but it is less 
certain, as the binocular vision enables us in some degree 
to keep in check the other causes of illusion. 

The influence of these secondary causes is strikingly dis- 
played in the following experiment. In the armorial 
bearings upon a seal, the shield is often more deeply cut 
than the surrounding parts. With binocular vision, the 
shallow parts rise into relief sooner than the shield, and 
continue so while the shield remains depressed ; but if we 
shut one eye the shield then rises into relief like the rest. 
In these experiments with a single lens a slight variation 
in the position of the seal, or a slight change in the inten- 
sity or direction of the illumination, or particular reflexions 
from the interior of the stone, if it is transparent, will 
favour or oppose the illusion. In viewing the shield at 
the deepest portion with a single lens, a slight rotation 
of the seal round the wrist, backwards and forwards, will 


remove the illusion, in consequence of the eye perceiving 
that the change in the perspective is different from what 
it ought to be. 

In my Letters on Natural Magic, I have described 
several cases of the conversion of form in which inverted 
vision is not employed. Hollows in mother-of-pearl and 
other semi-transparent bodies often rise into relief, in con- 
sequence of a quantity of light, occasioned by refraction, 
appearing on the side next the light, where there should 
have been a shadow in the case of a depression. Similar 
illusions take place in certain pieces of polished wood, cal- 
cedony, mother-of-pearl, and other shells, where the surface 
is perfectly plane. This arises from there being at that place 
a knot, or growth, or nodule, differing in transparency from 
the surrounding mass. The thin edge of the knot, &c, 
opposite the candle, is illuminated by refracted light, so 
that it takes the appearance of a concavity. From the 
same cause arises the appearance of dimples in certain 
plates of calcedony, which have received the name of 
hammered calcedony, or agate, from their having the look 
of being dimpled with a hammer. The surface on which 
these cavities are seen contains sections of small spherical 
formations of siliceous matter, which exhibit the same illu- 
sion as the cavities in wood. Mother-of-pearl presents 
similar phenomena, and so common are they in this 
substance that it is difficult to find a mother-of-pearl button 
or counter which seems to have its surface flat, although it 
is perfectly so when examined by the touch. Owing to 
the different refractions of the incident light by the dif- 
ferent growths of the shell, cut in different directions by 
the artificial surface, like the annual growth of wood in a 


dressed plank, the surface of the mineral has necessarily an 
inequai and undulating appearance. 

In viewing good photographic or well-painted miniature 
portraits in an erect and inverted position, and with or with- 
out a lens, considerable changes take place in the apparent 
relief Under ordinary vision there is a certain amount of 
relief depending upon the excellence of the picture. If we 
invert the picture, by turning it upside down, the relief is 
perceptibly increased. If we view it when erect, with a 
lens of about an inch in focal length, the relief is still 
greater ; but if we view it when inverted with the same 
lens the relief is very considerably diminished. 

A very remarkable illusion, affecting the apparent posi- 
tion of the drawings of geometrical solids, was first ob- 
served by the late Professor Neckar, of Geneva, who com- 
municated it to me personally in 1832. 1 " The rhom- 
boid ax," (Fig. 51,) he says, " is drawn so that the solid 

Fro. 51. 

angle a should be seen nearest to the spectator, and the 
solid angle z the farthest from him, and that the face acbd 
should be the foremost, while the face xdc is behind. But 

1 See Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, Noyember 1832, roL L p. 334 


in looking repeatedly at the same figure, you will perceive 
that at times the apparent position of the rhomboid is so 
changed that the solid angle x will appear the nearest, 
and the solid angle a the farthest, and that the face acdb 
will recede behind the face xdc, which will come forward, 
— which effect gives to the whole solid a quite contrary 
apparent inclination." Professor Neckar observed this 
change " as well with one as with both eyes," and he con- 
sidered it as owing " to an involuntary change in the 
adjustment of the eye for obtaining distinct vision. And 
that whenever the point of distinct vision on the retina was 
directed to the angle a for instance, this angle, seen more 
distinctly than the other, was naturally supposed to be 
nearer and foremost, while the other angles, seen indis- 
tinctly, were supposed to be farther away and behind. 
The reverse took place when the point of distinct vision 
was brought to bear upon the angle x. What I have said of 
the solid angles (a and x) is equally true of the edges, 
those edges upon which the axis of the eye, or the central 
hole of the retina, are directed, will always appear forward ; 
so that now it seems to me certain that this little, at first 
so puzzling, phenomenon depends upon the law of distinct 

In consequence of completely misunderstanding Mr. 
Neckar' s explanation of this illusion, Mr. Wheatstone has 
pronounced it to be erroneous, but there can be no doubt 
of its correctness ; and there are various experiments by 
which the principle may be illustrated. By hiding with 
the finger one of the solid angles, or making it indistinct, 
by a piece of dimmed glass, or throwing a slight shadow 
over it, the other will appear foremost till the obscuring 


cause is removed. The experiment may be still more 
satisfactorily made by holding above the rhomboid a piece 
of finely-ground glass, the ground side being farthest from 
the eye, and bringing one edge of it gradually down till it 
touches the point a, the other edge being kept at a distance 
from the paper. In this way all the lines diverging from 
a will become dimmer as they recede from a, and con- 
sequently a will appear the most forward point. A 
similar result will be obtained by putting a black spot 
upon a, which will have the effect of drawing our atten- 
tion to a rather than to x. 

From these experiments and observations, it will be seen 
that the conversion of form, excepting in the normal case, 
depends upon various causes, which are influential only 
under particular conditions, such as the depth of the 
hollow or the height of the relief, the distance of the 
object, the sharpness of vision, the use of one or both 
eyes, the inversion of the shadow, the nature of the object, 
and the means used by the mind itself to produce the 
illusion. In the normal case, where the cavity or con- 
vexity is shadowless, and upon an extended surface, and 
where inverted vision is used, the conversion depends solely 
on the illusion, which it is impossible to resist, that the 
side of the cavity or elevation next the eye is actually 
farthest from it, an illusion not produced by inversion, but 
by a false judgment respecting the position of the surface 
in which the cavity is made, or upon which it rests. 




There are many persons who experience great difficulty 
in uniting the two pictures in the stereoscope, and conse- 
quently in seeing the relief produced by their union. If 
the eyes are not equal in focal length, that is, in the dis- 
tance at which they see objects most distinctly ; or if, from 
some defect in structure, they are not equally good, they 
will still see the stereoscopic relief, though the picture will 
be less vivid and distinct than if the eyes were in every 
respect equal and good. There are many persons, however, 
whose eyes are equal and perfect, but who are not able to 
unite the pictures in the stereoscope. This is the more 
remarkable, as children of four or five years of age see the 
stereoscopic effect when the eye-tubes are accommodated to 
the distance between their eyes. The difficulty experienced 
in uniting the binocular pictures is sometimes only tem- 
porary. On first looking into the instrument, two pictures 
are seen in place of one ; but by a little perseverance, and 
by drawing the eyes away from the eye-tubes, and still 
looking through them, the object is seen single and in per- 
fect relief. After having ceased to use the instrument for 


some time, the difficulty of uniting the pictures recurs, but, 
generally speaking, it will gradually disappear. 

In those cases where it cannot be overcome by repeated 
trials, it must arise either from the distance between the 
lenses being greater or less than the distance between the 


eyes, or from some peculiarity in the power of converging 
the optical axes, which it is not easy to explain. 

If the distance between the pupils of the two eyes, e, e', 
Fig. 52, which has been already explained on Fig. 18, is 
less than the distance between the semi-lenses l, l', then, 
instead of looking through the middle portions no, n'o', of 
the lenses, the observer will look through portions between 
o and l, and o' and l', which have a greater power of re- 
fracting or displacing the pictures than the portions no, n' d, 
and therefore the pictures will be too much displaced, and 
will have so far overpassed one another that the observer is 
not able to bring them bach to their place of union, half- 
way between the two pictures in the slide. 

If, on the other hand, the distance between the pupils of 
the observer's eyes is greater than the distance between the 
semi-lenses l, l', then, instead of looking through the por- 
tions no,n'd of the lenses, the observer will look through 
portions between n and l, and n' and l', which have a less 
power of refracting or displacing the pictures than the por- 
tions no, n'o', and therefore the pictures will be so little 
displaced as not to reach their place of union, and will 
stand at such a distance that the observer is not able to 
bring them up to their proper place, half-way between the 
two pictures in the slide. 

Now, in both these cases of over and under displacement, 
many persons have such a power over their optical axes, 
that by converging them to a point nearer than the picture, 
they would, in the first case, bring them back to their place 
of union, and by converging them to a point more remote 
than the picture, would, in the second case, bring them up 
to their place of union ; but others are very defective in 


this power of convergence, some having a facility of converg- 
ing them beyond the pictures, and others between the pic- 
tures and 'the eye. This last, however, namely, that of 
near convergence, is by far the most common, especially 
among men ; but it is of no avail, and the exercise of it is 
injurious when the under refracted pictures have not come 
up to their place of union. The power of remote converg- 
ence, which is very rare, and which would assist in bringing 
back the over refracted pictures to their place of union, is 
of no avail, and the exercise of it is injurious when the 
pictures have been too much displaced, and made to pass 
beyond their place of union. 

When the stereoscope is perfectly adapted to the eyes of 
the observer, and the general union of the pictures effected, 
the remote parts of the picture, that is, the objects seen in 
the distance, may be under refracted, while those in the 
foreground are over refracted, so that while eyes which 
have the power of convergence beyond the picture, unite 
the more distant objects which are under refracted, they 
experience much difficulty in uniting those in the foreground 
which are over refracted. In like manner, eyes which have 
the power of near convergence will readily unite objects in 
the foreground which are over refracted, while they expe- 
rience much difficulty in uniting objects in the distance 
which are under refracted. If the requisite power over 
the optical axes is not acquired by experience and persever- 
ance, when the stereoscope is suited to the eyes of the 
observer, the only suggestion which we can make is to 
open the eyes wide, and expand the eyebrows, which we do 
in staring at an object, or in looking at a distant one, when 
we wish to converge the axes, as in Fig. 22, to a point 


beyond the pictures, and to contract the eyes and the eye- 
brows, which we do in too much light, in looking at a near 
object, when we wish to converge the optic axes, as in Fig. 
21, to a point between the pictures and the eye. 

When the binocular pictures are taken at too great an 
angle, so as to produce a startling amount of relief, the 
distance between similar points in each picture, both in the 
distance and in the foreground, is much greater than it 
ought to be, and hence the difficulty of uniting the pictures 
is greatly increased, so that persons who would have expe- 
rienced no difficulty in uniting them, had they been taken 
at the proper angle, will fail altogether in bringing them 
into stereoscopic relief. 

In these observations, it is understood that the observer 
obtains distinct vision of the pictures in the stereoscope, 
either by the adjustment of the moveable eye-tubes, if they 
are moveable, as they ought to be, or by the aid of convex 
or concave glasses for both eyes, either in the form of 
spectacles, or separate lenses placed immediately above, or 
immediately below the semi-lenses in the eye tubes. If the 
eyes have different focal lengths, which is not unfrequently 
the case, lenses differing in convexity or concavity should 
be employed to equalize them. 




8iviHTH Thousand, Cloth, 6s., 



By Sir David Bmwbtee, K.H., D.O.L., F.R.S. 


Thied Edition, Cloth, 4s. 6U, 











Two Vols., large 8vo, with Portraits, &c., Price £l, 4s., 






By Sib David Bbbwstbb, K.H. 

"We regard the present work as the most complete and faithful reflection 
of a man of whom Pope said, that ' His life and manners would make as great 
a discovery of goodness and rectitude of heart, as his works have done of pene- 
tration and the utmost stretch of human knowledge.' " — Athenaum. 

"A repertory of information on Newton and his discoveries, which must 
always be consulted by students of the History of Science."— Leader. 

" Not merely a history of the life, and an account of the successive disco- * 
veries of Sir Isaac Newton ; but what is of still greater interest and greater 
value, and what a man of the attainments of Sir David Brewster could alone 
effect, the progress of his mind and the advancement of his discoveries are here 
traced contemporaneously together, and the circumstances operating upon each 
are investigated and developed."— Critic. 

" One of the most precious gifts ever made both to scientific history and 
physical science."—- Introduction to Lord Brougham and Mr. Routh't "Ana- 
lytical View of the Principia." 

" The fruit of careful and elaborate research— the production of an accom- 
plished and philosophical intellect — and the best biographical monument 
which Newton is ever likely to receive."— British Quarterly Review. 





FIRST 8EKLE8.— Twenty-Fifth Thousand.— Cloth, gilt edges, price 2s. 


Warfare Work. 
Everyday Wobk. 
Social Wobk. 
Homb Wobk. 


Waiting Wobk. 
Pbbpabatobt Wobk. 

db8ultory wobk. 

Pbaising Wobk. 

Special Wobk. 

Pray 150 Wobk. 

Hombly Hints about Wobk. 

Rbward or Wobk. 

Futubb Wobk. 

SECOND SERIES.— Eighteenth Thousand.— Cloth, gilt edges, price 2s. 

Little Children's Wobk. 
Young Ladies' Wobk. 
Work of Tbachbbs and Taught. 
Housbhold Wobk. 
Wobk of Employers and 

Countbt Wobk. 
Sabbath Wobk. 
Thought Wobk. 
Pboving W6rk. 

To be had complete in One Volume, price is. 

" Miss Brewster is precisely one of the ladies for the time, — not a drowsy 
dreamer, but folly awake, strong in heart, ardent in zeal, and intent on the 
vigorous use of right means to promote right ends." — British Banner. 

" Full of wholesome instruction, clothed in elegant language."— Evangelical 

" The right application of Christian principle to the ordinary duties of life, 
it is no easy matter accurately and impressively to exhibit. The author of this 
little work has succeeded admirably here." — Witness. 

"The tone of the book is eminently Christian, the style unaffected, often 
rising into eloquence." — Church of England Quarterly Review. 

" Modest as is the view Miss Brewster takes of her own labours, it is certain 
she will gain the ear and heart of all who become her readers by the holy wis- 
dom and loving-kindness of her truly womanly words ; and we believe that none 
will lay down her little books without feeling purified and instructed, nerved 
and animated." — Nonconformist 

" The first series met with our hearty approbation. In this we perceive no 
falling off, or rather, we might say, it is treated in a more interesting manner." 
— Atlas. 


Third Edition, Grown 8vo, Cloth, Price 3s. 6<L, 


Also, Ohbap Edition, Nineteenth Thousand, Limp Cloth, Price Is. 

" In reading the First and Second Series of her former publication, 'Work/ 
we felt as if Miss Brewster had said all that could be said on the subject In- 
stead of that, we find here her thoughts as fresh, as instructive as before, and 
in form still more attractive."— Edinburgh Guardian. 

" The fruit alike of strong sense and philanthropic genius. . . . There is in 
every chapter much to instruct the mind as well as to mould the heart and to 
mend the manners. The volume has all the charms of romance, while every 
page is stamped with utility.-— Christian Witness. 

" Promises to do more for the in-door reformation of Scotland than any book 
that has appeared since Miss Hamilton published 'The Cottagers of Glen- 
burnie.' "—Excelsior. 

Crown 8vo, Cloth, Price 3s. 6d., 


Also, Ohbap Edition, Nineteenth Thousand, Limp Goth, Price Is. 

" Even those who do not share Hiss Brewster's evangelical point of view, 
will see much that is valuable in this modest book, and will feel unmixed ad- 
miration for the writer's amiable devotion of her powers to this unassuming 
service." — Westminster Review. 

"-Well adapted for all the objects which the gifted and benevolent writer 
proposes. , . A better gift-book for young domestic servants we do not know." 
— Literary Gazette. 

Sewed, Price 2s. per dozen, 




mmwuM nmw 







" The two become one, and produce effects unknown to art. No family or school should 
be without one. It is one of the wonders of our age." — Britannia, 

" Sir David Brewster, for this charming discovery, deserves the thanks of the nation." — 
Morning Chronicle. 9 

" MarveU of beauty— Heidelberg as real as on the Nectar."— Daily News. 

" Their groups and views are the finest we ever saw." — Art Journal. 

" Vast fields of enjoyment, the effects seem almost miraculous. r — Morning Herald. 

" Everything grand and beautiful in the world brought to our own firesides."— Morning 

" Wonderful instrument." — Times. 

" Administers at once to wonder and delight."— Spectator. 


Shewing the various Courts and points of greatest interest, ivith descriptive 
Utter-press at the back of each slide. 

The following are mounted on Card, at 3s. each Slide, and are of the 
choicest description. 

1. The Byzantine Court— interior 
View, with the black marble fountain (an 
exact copy of one at lieisterbach on the 
Rhine), and the celebrated effigies of Henry 
II. and his queen Eleanora, and of Isabella, 
wife of King John, from Fontevrault Abbey. 

2. The Egyptian Court— Entrance 
to, with Avenue of Lions. The different styleti 
of columns, &c, during the Ptolemaic period, 
about 300 years B.C., and the outlines in 
low relief on the walls are beautifully de- 

3. The Court of the Lions-One of 
the most gorgeous in the Alhambra, re- 
markable for its graceful fretwork and the 
fairy-like slightness of ita columns. It de- 
rives its name from the stone fountain seen 
in its centre, surrounded by lions. 

4. The Italian. Court— From a por- 
tion of the FarnosePalace at Rome, with the 
figure of Lorenzo de' Medici, and Dawn and 
Twilight, from the celebrated monument in 
the Church of San Lorenzo at Florence. 

5. The Pompeian Court— A well- 
chosen view from that beautiful Court, being 
an actual representation of the " Atrium," 
or hall of a Roman mansion, with its " ira- 
pluvium" at the time of the great eruption, 
A.D. 79. 

6. The Renaissance Court— A cor- 
rect epitome of thatarchitecture which super- 
seded the florid Gothic of the 15th century, 
and returning to a chaster style, is now 
known as the renaissance. 

7. The Two Colossal Statues— Of 
Barneses, from the Temple of Abou Simboul, 
in Nubia, sculptured in the solid rock. From 
hieroglyphics in the interior the date of 
their construction is ascertained to have 
been 1560 B.C. 

8. The Elizabethan Court— Both 

facade and arcades of which are from Hol- 
land House, Kensington, together with two 
bronze figures by Landini, from the Tarta- 
rughe fountain at Rome, and busts of Shake- 
speare, &c. 

9. Entrance to English Me- 
diaeval Court — Showing the western 
doorway of Tintern Abbey, and the two 
statues from the west front of Wells Cathe- 
dral. The celebrated Walsingham font is 
seen within the Court. 

*lO. The Egyptian Hall of Co- 
lumns—This hall exhibits a combination of 
columns from various buildings ; some from 
the Tomb of Ozymandias, and others crowned 
with the head of Athor, the Egyptian Venus. 

11. The Telescope Gallery— So 

named from the curious effect produced by 
its apparently interminable repetition of 
rings, when seen from either extremity. 

12. The Assyrian Court— With re- 
presentations of the hnman-headed bulls 
which formed the entrance to the palace at 
Khorsabad, and of some of the figures on its 
walls, as also of the Sphinxes, cast from one 
in the Louvre, dated 1000 years before Christ. 

18. View in the Greek Court- 
Containing some of the finest examples of 
Greek sculpture ; a portion of the Egyptian 
Court is also visible, with one of the figures 
of Amenoph, restored from the black granite 
statue in the British Museum. 

14. Entrance to the Egyptian 
Court — Remarkable for the dedication on 
the frieze, to the Queen, as the " Ruler of the 
Waves, the Royal Daughter Victoria, Lady 
Most Gracious," &c^ in hieroglyphics. 

16. Interior View of the Crystal 
Palaoe — Looking towards the north end, 
and comprising nearly the whole length of 
the nave. Osier's crystal fountain occupies 
the centre of the foreground, surrounded by 
the colossal statues of Leasing and Hus- 
kisson, Lord Chatham, and Dr. Johnson. 

16. The Stationery Court— This 
View comprises three life-like figures by 
Ranch of Berlin, pupil both of Canova and 
Thorwaldson. The character of the Court is 
composite, with cinque-cento ornamentation. 

17* Gallery of Greek Sculpture— 

The statues seen in this view are of different 
periods of Greek art, but all of the highest 
class, from the collections at Rome, Naples, 
I Paris, and Berlin. 

18. Gallery of Greek Sculpture— 

A continuation of the preceding, and com' 
prising statues and busts in no way inferior 
to it in any of the qualities of high and re- 
I fined art. 

19. Gallery of Greek Sculpture- 
Remarkable principally for the authenticated 
busts of Numa Pompilius, and various Roman 
Emperors, clustered round the termination 
of the gallery looking towards the Court of 
the Lions. 

20. Gallery of Greek Sculpture— 

I Amongst the statues in this continuation of 
the Greek Court, is the far-famed Venus de' 
Medici, and it is remarkable for the massive 
antae or square columns, in the recess between 
which is a small statue of Euripides. 

21. The Byzantine Court— Two 

arches of the arcade from the cloisters of 
St. Mary in Capitolo, an ancient church of 
Cologne, with examples on the spandrils of 
the costume and style of the Byzantine 
period, and recumbent figures of the Earl* 
of Pembroke and Essex. 

22. The Byzantine Court— A con- 
tinuation of the same facade, with portraits 
of the Emperor Nicephorus, and of Theo- 
dora, wife of Justinian. 

23. The Italian Court -^Con- 
structed after the model of the Farneae 
Palace with the statue of Guliano de' Medici, 
and the figures of Light and Night, from San 
Lorenzo, Florence. In the centre is seen 
the fountain of the Tartarughe, from Rome. 

24. The Italian Court— The ori- 
ginal design of the Farnese Palace, the 
model from which this court is taken, was 
by Sangallo, but it was completed under the 

direction of Michael Angalo; by whom is 
the celebrated statue of BacchuB, seen in 
front of the facade. 

25. English Mediaeval Court- 
Part of which is from Tintern Abbey, and 
part from Gainsborough, Yorkshire, with 
statues from Romsey and Wells Cathedral. 

26. Entrance to the Greek 
Court — Presenting two columns from the 
Temple of Jupiter, at Nemea, and in the 
back ground a model, about one-fourth the 
size of the original, of the Parthenon, with 
antique statuary in the foreground. 

27. Interior of Greek Court- 
Supported by pillars from the Temple of 
Jupiter, at Nemea, constructed about 400 
years B.C. Here are the two famous s tatues, 
the gladiator Repellens, and the Scythian 
whetting his knife. 

2a Mixed Fabrics Court— In the 

occupation of Sowerby, of Regent Street ; at 
this angle is seen Bailey's Graces, and the 
Musidora by Thomas. 

29. The Roman Court — Nothing 
can be more chaste and simple than this 
court, its arches rising between Iouic pillars 
and separated by a pilaster of the same 
order, in harmony with the sculpture it con- 

30. The Statues of Amenoph— 

Restored from the original in black granite, 
now in the British Museum, together with a 
portrait of Rameses II. sitting under the 
Persea tree, sculptured on the walls. 

31. Interior of English Mediae- 
val Court— Most conspicuous in the cen- 
tre of this court, is the tomb of Edward the 
Black Prince, from Canterbury Cathedral, 
and that of William of Wykeham, from Win- 
chester, beyond which is the Walsingham 

32. Middle Entrance to the 
Greek Court — Showing a Doric column, 
part of the facade from the Temple of 
Jupiter, at Nemea. 

83. Entrance to the Alhambra 
Court— An exact fac-simile of the en- 
trance into the court of the Lions from the 
Court of the Fish-pond. The diaper pattern 
on the walls being from the Sala de la Barca. 

34. The Nave — Osier's well-known 
fountain, Una and the Lion, and the Eagle 
Slayer, ate here seen in a line across the 
Nave, beyond which are the statues of 
Charles I. and James II. 

86. Screen of the Kings and 
Queens Of England— A beautiful re- 
presentation of the Screen designed by M.D. 
Wyatt, with the sculpture by Thomas; it is 
taken from the angle where the Norman 
series commences, and comprises the statue 
of her present Majesty. 

36. The Tfoftloat Instrument 
Court— A truthful representation of the 
entrance of this beautiful Court, designed by 
Thomas, with a representation of Miriam in 
the space above, and a bust of Jubal to the 

37. View in the Nave— This view is 
taken directly across the Nave, in aline with 
Osier's fountain and the statues of Charles 
I. and James II.; and showing a line of 
statues, by Theed and Gibson, amongst 
which most conspicuous is that of Humphrey 
Chetham, of Manchester. 

38. Group of Africans— Contrast- 
ing the Negro of the lower levels, with the 
Danakil of the high pastures and plateaus 
of jthe Desert. 

39. Byzantine Court— Showing the 
centre arch of the facade from the Church of 
St. Mary in Capitolo, at Cologne, the columns 
from which it springs being ornamented with 
Capitols of different designs. 

40. Mixed Fabrics Court— The 
only statue visible from this point of view, is 
from the Murder of the Innocents, but it 
derives its interest from the tropical ever- 
greens, by which it is surrounded. 

41. Ceremony of Inauguration 

— Being a correct representation taken upon 
the spot on the 10th of June, 1854, when Mr. 
Laing, the Chairman of the Crystal Palace 
Company, was in the act of reading the 
address to Her Majesty. 

42. Mixed Fabrics Court— Show- 
ing the Tired Hunter, a statue by Bailey, 
and Apollo discharging his bow, by the 
same artist. 

43. General View of the Crystal 
Palace— A beautiful view of the building 
seen from a distance. It is taken from a 
point above Anerley station, where it it 
seen to the greatest advantage. 

44. Portion of the North Wing— 

In which the general character of the Italian 
Terraces with the vases, statues, flower-beds, 
fish-ponds, &c., is seen in connection with a 
portion of the building. 

46. General View in the Grounds 

— As seen from the central corridor, compri- 
sing the broad walk down to the great foun- 
tain, the village and church, beyond the 
grounds, and the hills and variegated land- 
scape in the far distance. 

The Second Series of about 200 
subjects taken from the Crystal 
Palace, in addition to and in- 
cluding many of the above, with- 
out description, mounted at 2s. 
each slide. 


Groups, Figures, &e. &c. 


Consisting of numerous Groups and Views, 
of an amusing and entertaining character, 
of the very finest quality. On card, mounted 
at 8s. each slide. 

Return from Shooting. 

Dead Game. 

( 'ock and Fox. 

The old Larder. 

The Family Torment. 

The Egg Girl. 

A Dajrs 8port (Group of Fish). 

Articles of Vertu. 

The Curiosity Shop. 

The Enraged Cockatoo; or, a Chinese Ball 

in Danger. 
The Pet Bird. 

Several exquisite Rustic Scenes from Berkshire. 

Now Publishing, by permission, some Beautiful Scenes from the 

Winter's Tale. 


Hawk and Duckling. 
Hen and Weasel. 
Group of Four Chinese. 
Group of Two Esquimeanz. 
Root. Drummond, Valet to late Lord Nelson. 
Mr. Lovejoy— objects to being disturbed just 
when ho begins to feel comfortable. 

(Taken by Command of Her Majesty.) 

Group of Three Sailors — Crimean Heroes. 
„ Five Royal Marines „ 
„ 2 Royal Marine Artillery „ 

Group of 3 Rifle Brigade— Crimean Heroes. 
„ 3 Fusilier Guards „ 

Launch of the Marlborough at Portsmouth. 

Ditto another View 

Ditto another View. 

Very popular Subjects, mounted at 2s. 6d. 
each slide. 

The Murder of Abel. 

Miss Wyndham of the Adelphi, as Columbine. 

Qal Masque" (Eighteen Plates). 

Mother Goose. 

The Emperor and Empress of China. 

Roman Woman at the Well. 

Crossing the Brook. 

Oharity School. 

Girl with Fawn (Three Plates). 

" Strictly Confidential." 

Going to the Ball. 

The Coquette. 

Boys Blowing Bubbles (Two Plates). 

Boys at Play. 


Children Swinging. 

Dinner Party (Four Plates), group of 8. 

Tea Party (Four Plates). 


Group of Fruit. 

Catholic Devotion. 

Dancing Figure. 

Spanish Dancers (Bight varied Plates). 

Clara Novello. 

Albert Smith. 


Holmes, or Dead Guy. 

Ross, Her Majesty's Piper. 

Death of Thomas A'Beoket (Two Plates), to be followed by a complete 

Series of Historical Subjects of the deepest interest, with explanatory 

letter-press at. back. 

Lady Asleep ; Another overlooking. 

Lady Reading ; Another overlooking (Two 

Dead Game. 

Costermonger with Game. 
Flower Girl. 
Fruit Girl. 

Fish Girl (Two Plates). 
The Gleaner (Two Plates). 

Combat (Mr. Albert Smith and Mr. Holmes). 
Pantomimes, various and amusing. 
Harlequin, Pantaloon, and Columbine. 
The Gipsey. 
The Toilet. 

The Rabbit on the Wall. 
Taking a Sight. 

Scenes from the Ballet of " Ondine." 
" Happy to take Wine withYou." (Group of 7.) 
The Tired Gleaner (Two Plates). 
Group of Shells. 
Mrs. Caudle's Curtain Lecture. 
Mr. Caudle's attempt at Peace. 
His Success. 

The Wedding at St. George's, No. 1. 
Baby asleep in Cot, No. 2. 
Blind Man*s Buff. 
The Christening, No. 3. 
Lady at Toilet Glass. 
And several other beautiful subjects. 


Miscellaneous Subjects of the " Wilkie" character, very popular, mounted at 

Is. 6d. each. 

Man and Woman in Yard— Snow Scene. 
Ladies seated outside Lodge-door. 
Maid taking Joint from Butcher Boy. 
Lady seated at Table. 
Family Group at Tea. 

Do. do., with Eagle. 

Conversing with Neighbours over the Wall. 
A Boy's School. 
Group of Anglers. 
Child seen through Anti-Macassar. 
Porters gossipping in Yard. 
Group round Fish Pond. 
Group seated on Garden Chair. 
Wooden-legged Man at Kenilworth Castle. 
Family Group in Garden. 
Interior of Larder. 
Ruined Gateway, Kenilworth. 
Harrowing Machine. 
Militia Men at Skittles. 
Porters with Luggage, &c.— Snow 8cene. 
Family outside Conservatory. 
Group of Game, &c 
Men with Truck. 

Militia Men under Drill (several Plates). 
Poultry larder. 

Group of 25 Ladies and Children. 

Group of Anglers and Lady. 

Family Group in Arbour. 

Ladies playing at Chess. 

Family Group at and under Window. 
Do. do., in Garden. 

Group of Labourers. 

Boy on Rocking Horse. 

Girl on do. 

Man weighing out Coals. 

Peacock in Garden. 

Group of Stuffed Birds in Cases. 

Smoking Cigar in Grotto, 

Group of Gentlemen at Boat-house. 

Gardener sweeping Lawn. 

Piece of Ruined Castle covered with Ivy. 

Family Group at Cottage Door. 

Sportsman Firing ; Gardener and Boy. 

Labourers taking their Meals. 

Labourers and Shoe-black. 

Black Letter and Spectacles. 

Packing Soda-water. 

Friendly Visit. 

Girls giving the Gardener some Porter. 

Man washing Dog-cart. 

Boys in Punt, Angling. 


Gardener Hoeing. 

Recruiting party. 

Party playing at Skittles. 


Family in Summer-house. 

Soldiers at Cards. 

i and Child in Garden. 

Child seen through Netting. 

Family in Garden. 

Group of Ducks, &c 

Sportsman ; Child and Labourer in Yard 

Sportsman and Family in Garden. 

Labourers at Meals. 

Family Group. 

Gentleman climbing Tree. 

Family Group in Garden. 

Father nursing Child. 

Group round Fish Pond. 

Haymaking Machine. 

Family Group in Garden. 

Labelling Cask. 


Papa's Pet in Tree. 

Ladies Conversing. 

Gentleman in Conservatory. 

Gardener gossipping with Maid. 

Soldiers playing at Cards. 

Coachman talking to Lodge Keeper. 

Family Group. 

Carmen and Housewife. 

" Any Brooms or Brushes?" &c. 

Sportsman, Angler, and Friend. 

Gentleman at Gate talking to the Carpenter. 

Family Group outside Conservatory. 

Dustmen and Boys in Yard. 

Garden Scene. 

Gentlemen at Kenilworth Gateway. 

Group of Surveyors. 

Family Group. 

Lady and Children. 

Porters in Yard. 

Group of Soldiers. 

Porters and Boy in Yard. 

Group around Fish Pond. 

Mamma and Daughters. 

Soldiers on Drill. 

Militia Man and Boy on Ladder. 

Family at Window and in Garden. 

A Solitary Bird. 

Large Party of Ladies in Garden. 

Lady and Gentlemen in Garden. 

Ladies and Children at Door. 

Family Group in Garden. 

Man and Labourers clearing away Snow. 

Labourers loading Truck. 

Carpenter, Labourers, and Man offering 

Playing at Skittles. 

Men with Truck, and Boy drinking Le- 

Quaker's Meeting. 

Man tying Vine. 
Winning the Gloves. 
Skull and Spectacles. 
( School Boys in Playground. 
Piece of Coral (very striking). 

Militia Man calls on Mary. 

Boy listening to them. 

Militia Man gets indignant and knocks down 

the Boy. 
An old Man interferes. 
Mary makes peace. 
Departure of the Militia Man. 
Gentlemen and Boy in Summer-house. 
Militia Man and Porter at Door. (5) 
Dog and Kennel. 
Gardener and Boy. 
" rpenter, Porter, and Boy. 

litia Kneeling. 

Portion of Ruins, Kenil worth. 

Group of Soldiers. 

Family Group in Garden. 

A Bird. 

Shakespeare's House. 

Family Group in Garden. 

Group of Children in Garden. 


Young Lady with Hoop; Servant, cleaning 

Ladies and Maid on Door-steps. 
Ruins of Covent Garden Theatre (6 Plates). 
Old Patriarch. 


All the Paper Subjects can be bad, exquisitely coloured, at 6d. per Slide, 


Fresh Subjects are continually being added to this class. 

A large collection of Daguerreotype Statuary, taken from the orginal marble, 

5s. 6d. each. 
The same Subjects on paper, Is. 6d. each, including — 
Bust of Ariadne by Bacon. 
Dorothea by Bell. 
Golden Age by Beattie. 
Ino and Bacchus by Foley. 
Two Cupids struggling for a Heart by 

Uncle Toby, Widow Wadman. 

Sabrina by Bailey. 

Andromeda by Pradier. 

Leda and the Swan „ 

Diana „ 

Priestess Bacchus „ 

Greek Slave by Power. 

Laocoon from the original statue at Rome. 


and the choicest Spots in England, including the following Subjects, 
from Is. 6d. to 2s. each. 
Salisbury Cathedral and its Vicinity. 
Shakespeare's House at Stratford-on-Avon. 

Do. Tomb. 
Anne Hathaway's Cottage. 
8tratford-on-Avon Church. 
Man in Stocks in Stratford Churchyard. 
The Banquet Hall, Kenilworth Castle. 
The Mill, Guy's Cliff; Warwick. 
The Avenue, ,, „ 

Leamington College. 
Warwick Castle. 
Stone Cross in Ashow Churchyard, near 

Leicester Buildings, Kenilworth Castle. 
Caesar's Tower, „ „ 

Fire Place in Banquet Hall, „ „ 
Entrance to Gate House, „ „ 
Ashow Church, near Leamington. 
Stoneleigh Bridge, over the Avon, near 

Several choice Views at Hampton Court. 
Quarr Abbey. 
Egypt, West Cowes. 
Shanklin Church. 

„ Chine. 

„ Dell. 
Areton Church. 

Binstead Parsonage. 

St. Helens. 

Chale Church. 

Crab Inn. 

Skeleton Flowers (very striking). 

Charming View near Leamington. 

Avenue of Trees at Leamington. 

Several beautiful Views of Kenilworth Castle. 

With many others. 

Fifty varied Stereoscopic Plates of the- 
Great Crumlin Viaduct in Wales. This via- 
duct is upwards of 200 feet in height, 1750 ■ 
in length, a most interesting subject for 
architects, civil engineers, &c 
Various Views of Edinburgh. Aberdeen, &o. 
Together with numerous similar Subjects. 

In addition to the above, there is a large/ 
selection of French views, comprising every 
subject of interest, including Notre Dame, 
Place de la Concorde, Champs Elysees, Place 
des Victoires, The Madelaine, The Bourse, 
&c, &c , from 9d. to Is. 6d. each ; also, 
French and Italian views, of a very superior 
quality, mounted at 2s. 6<L each. 


The following Views comprehend all the principal features and points of 
interest, mounted on card at Is. 6d. each slide. 

The King of Naples has prohibited the taking of any more Photographic 
pictures of Pompeii. 

Temple of Serapis at Naples. 

Temple of Ceres (No. 1) at Poestum. 

Left of the Forum at Pompeii. 

The Musician's House at Pompeii. 

Temple of Diana at Bala, Naples. 

Soldier's Quarters at Pompeii. 

Mount Pelegrino, Palermo. 

Entrance of the Forum at Pompeii. 

Entrance of the Theatre at Pompeii. 

View of Vesuvius at Naples. 

Temple of Jupiter at Pompeii. 

Interior of the Temple of Mercury at 

Temple of Iris at Pompeii. 
The Baker's House at Pompeii. 
Altar of the Temple of Venus, Pompeii. 
Sallust's House, Pompeii. 
The Basilique at Poestum. 
Gate of Herculaneum at Herculaneum. 

The Right of the Forum, Pompeii. 
The Pantheon at Pompeii. 
Course of the Tombs at Pompeii. 
Temple of Neptune at Poestum. 
Temple of Ceres (No. 2) at Poestum. 
Course of the Tombs at Pompeii. 
Course of the Tombs (No. 2) Pompeii. 
Chateau of Queen Jeanne at Naples. 
•Walk of Fortune at Pompeii. 
Castle of Baia, near Naples. 
The Basilique at Pompeii. 
The House of the Chapters at Pompeii. 
View of the Forum at Pompeii. 
The Three Temples at Poestum. 
Temple of Venus at Pompeii. 
House of Diomedes at Pompeii, 
Temple of Venus at Naples. 
St. Mary's at Palermo. 
House of the Faun at Pompeii. 

Stereoscopic Views in France, England, 6s. 6d. each. 
„ „ Italy . . 7s. 6d. 

,, ,, Rhine . . 7s. 6d. 

The above are executed in Albumen on Glass by one of the first European 
Artists, and in minuteness of detail and beauty of tone are the finest ever 
issued. They are mounted with a Gold Fillet, and with full title upon each 

The Departure— Bas-relief on the Arc de Tri- 

omphe de FEtoile. 
Glory— Bas-relief on the Arc de Triomphe de 

War— Bas-relief on the Arc de Triomphe de 

Peace— Bas-relief on the Arc de Triomphe de 

Fountain Cuvier. 
Arc de Triomphe de Carrousel. 
Place de la Concorde (very good). 
Apsis de Notre Dame de Paris (very good). 
Exterior of the Church of St. Btienne du 

Mont (very good). 
Front view of the Palace of Justice, Paris. 
Front view of the Terminus of the Stras- 

bourg Railway. 

Fore Court of the School of Beaux Arts, 

Palais des Tufleries. 
The Madelaine (very fine). 
Arc de Triomphe de l'Etoile. 
Front view of the Church St. Vincent de 

New Sacristy of Notre Dame, Paris (very 

Fontaine Moliere. 
The Clock Tower of the Palace of Justice, 

Notre Dame of Paris, View of the Quay des 

Grands Augustins. 
Perspective view of the Arc de Triomphe 

de l'Etoile. 
Fountain de la Place St. Sulpice. 


Place du Chfitelet 

Portal of Notre Dame, Paris (beautiful). 

Notre Dame, Paris, south side (very good). 

Front view of the Palais Royal. 

View of the Quay de l'H6tel de Ville, Paris 

(very good). 
Quay of the Louvre. 
View of the Seine, taken from the Pont 

Royal (very good). 
Notre Dame de Paris, and the bridge of the 

Notre Dame de Paris, north side (good). 
Perspective view of the new Sacristy of 

Notre Dame, Paris. 
Front view of the Church of St Germain 

Terminus of the Strasbourg Railway. 
View of the Seine, taken from the Pont des 

Fountain in the Place Louvois. 
Perspective du Quai et du Palais d'Orsay.. 
Colonne Vendome. 
Interior of the Church of St. Btienne du 

Tower of Clovis, and Pantheon view of the 

Polytechnic School. 
Equestrian Statue of Louis XIV., Place des 

Front view of the Pantheon. 
Notre Dame and Hotel Dieu de Paris (very 

Front view of the Hotel de Ville, Paris (very 

Front view of the Hotel du Garde Meuble, 

View of the Seine, taken from the Fruit 

Wharf (good). 
Palace of the Luxembourg, garden frontage. 
Palace du Luxembourg, et Tour St. Sulpice, 
Lilac and Horse Chesnut Trees in bloom in 

the garden of the Luxembourg. 
Front view of the Hotel des Invalides. 
Equestrian statue of Henry IV. view of the 

Quai Conti. 
View of the Pont Neuf, and perspective view 

of the Louvre (good). 
View of the Quai de l'Ecole. 
Palais de Justice of Paris, View of the Quay 

of the Me*giss£rie. 
View of Pont Royal, et du Palais des 

The Louvre, view of the Platform du Pont 

Villa du Quai d'Orsay. 
The Mint, Paris. 

Perspective view of the Chamber of Deputies. 
Perspective view of the Seine with Drag 

Boats (very fine). 
View of the Cranes on the Wharf d'Orsay. 
Poll Rouge & Notre Dame de Paris. 
Perspective view of the Bridges on the 

Seine (very fine). 
Vue du Petit Pont sur la Seine. 
Vue du Bains des Fleurs. 
Perspective du Port Malaquais. 
Dome des Invalides. 

Circus in the Champs Elysees. 

Gothic Pavilion in the Champs Elysees. 

Fountain in the Champs Elysees. 

Manage de Napoleon (very fine). 

Cafe in the Champs ElyB&s, summer. 

Chevaux de Marly. 

View of the Seine, taken from the Quai de 

la Conference. 
Perspective view of the Church of St. Eus- 

Southern frontage of the Church of St. Ens- 

Front view of the Church of St. Gervais. 
Sixteen different panoramic views of Paris. 
Front view of the Hotel Cluny. 
Colonnade of the Louvre. 
View of the Entrance to the City of Paris. 
Perspective view of the H8tel de Ville, 

Val de Grace. 
View of the Institute, taken from the Quay 

of the Louvre. 
Front view of the Legislative Palace. 
Cafe in the Champs Elysees, snow scene 

(very beautiful). 
Entrance to a Park in the Champs Elysees, 

snow scene (very good). 
Eleven Snow Scenes, taken from different 

views at Trianon (all very beautiful). 
Three different Landscapes on the Lake 

of Enghien. 
Chapel at the Palace of Versailles. 
Statue of Louis XIV. at the Palace of Ver- 
Statue of Hoche at Versailles. 
Front view of the Palace at Versailles. 
Group of Lilac Trees in the Garden of the 

Palace at Versailles. 
Portal of the Church of St. Ouen at Rouen. 
Statue of Joan of Arc at Rouen (very fine.) 
Church of Notre Dame de Bon Secoure, 

near Rouen. 
Port of Rouen. 
General view of Rouen, taken from the 

Church of Bon Secours. 
General view of the facade of Notre Dame, 

of Rouen (very fine). 
Four Panoramic Views of Rouen (various). 
View of the Quay of the Island Lacroix at 

Six views of the Ruins of the Abbey of 

Jumieges, various (very interesting). 
View of the Seine and the Court-yard of 

Boyeldieu, Rouen. 
Statue of Corneille, Rouen. 
Porte Guillaume-Lion at Rouen. 
Suspension Bridge, Rouen. 
Portal of Notre Dame, Paris. 
Entrance to the Place des Halles, Rouen 
Place des Halles, Rouen. 
Old Houses at Rouen. 
Southern Angle of the Church of St. Ouen 

at Rouen (beautiful). 
Perspective view of the Church of St. Ouen 

at Rouen. 
Staircase of the Palais de Justice, Rouen. 

Front view of the Palais de Justice, Rouen. 

Perspective view of the Palais de Justice, 

Porte des Cordeliers & Leches. 

Front view of the Cathedral at Tours. 

Castle of Uss6, Tuurraine. 

Abbey of St. Denis. 

Porte Dauphine at the Chateau de Fontaine- 

Southern Porch of the Cathedral at Chartres, 

Portion of the Southern Porch of the Cathe- 
dral of Chartres. 

Pont Guillaume at Chartres. 

Pont de Massacre at Chartres. 

Riviere des Trois Moulins at Chartres. 

Ruins of the Church St. Andre* at Chartres. 

Castle of Maintenon (very fine). 

Portal of the Cathedral of Rheims (very 

Northern side of the Cathedral of Rheims 

Southern side of the Church of St. Remi at 

Place and Statue of Louis XV. at Rheims. 

Interior of the Church St. Remi at Rheims. 

Church of Notre Dame de l'Rpine. 

Southern side of Notre Dame de l'Epine. 

Southern side of the Cathedral of Stras- 

Southern Portal of the Cathedral of Stras- 
bourg (very grand). 

View of the Quay and Custom House at 

View of the Island taken from the Custom 
House Bridge at Strasbourg. 

View of the Island taken from the Draw- 
bridge at Strasbourg. 

Panoramic View of Strasbourg. 

Facade des Chevaliers at the Castle of Hei- 
delberg (very interesting;. 

Porte de la Facade des Chevaliers at the 
Castle of Heidelberg (very interesting). 

Clock Tower at the Castle of Heidelberg 
(very interesting). 

Galerie Robert at the Castle of Heidelberg 
(very interesting). 

Gallery of Antiquities at the Castle of 
Heidelberg (very interesting). 

Castle of Heidelberg as seen from the Park 
Terrace (very interesting). 

Castle of Heidelberg as seen from the Avenue 
in the Park (very interesting). 

General View of the Town of Heidelberg 
(very interesting). 

General View of the Castle of Heidelberg 
(very -interesting). 

The Bridge at Heidelberg (very interesting). 

Porte de la Salle des Chevaliers at the 
Castle of Heidelberg (very interesting). 

Ruins of a Tower at the Castle of Heidel- 
berg (very interesting). 

Tower of the Sierre at the Castle of Heidel- 
berg (very Interesting). 

General View of Mayence. 

Place Guttenberg at Mayence. 

View of Mayence, taken from the opposite 

Banks of the Rhine. 
View of Rudesheim, Borders of the Rhine. 

Western side of the Castle of Ehrenfels, 
Borders of the Rhine. 

Eastern side of the Castle of Ehrenfels, 
Borders of the Rhine. 

General View of Bingen, Borders of the 

Castle of Rheinstein, Borders of the Rhine 
(very beautiful). 

Castle of Sonneck. 

Castle of Falkenberg, Borders of the Rhine. 

Castle of Furstemberg, Borders of the Rhine. 

Rustic Cottage at Bacharach, Borders of the 

Ruins of the Abbey at Bacharach. 

General View of the Abbey at Bacharach. 

View of Bacharach from the Vale. 

View of Bacharach from the Rhine* 

Castle of Pfalz. 

View of Caub, from the opposite Banks of 
the Rhine. 

Castle of Giitenfels. 

Castle of Oberwesel. 

Large Tower of Oberwesel. 

General view of Oberwesel. 

Castle of St. Goar. 

Castle of Stobzenfels, from the Upper Ter- 

Castle of Stobzenfels, from the Lower Ter- 

General View of Coblentz. 

Church of Andernach. 

Two Views of the Archiepiscopal Palace at 

Ruins at Drachenfels. 

The Rocks at Drachenfels. 

Castle of Godesberg. 

Southern Portal of the Cathedral of 
Cologne (very beautiful). 

Front Portal of the Cathedral of Cologne 
(very good). 

Apsis of the Cathedral of Cologne. 

Porch of the Hotel de Ville at Cologne. 

View of the Canal at Bruges. 

View of the Canal Bridge at Bruges. 

Police Station at Bruges. 

View of the Chapel of St. Sang, Bruges. 

Dock Yard at Boulogne. 

The Quay at Boulogne. 

Grand Rue, Boulogne. 

Views of the Hills round Boulogne. 

The Downs at Boulogne. 

Facade of Westminster Abbey. 


Marble Arch. 

The Wellington Aroh. 

Facade of St. Paul's, London. 

View of the Serpentine. 

The Panopticon. 

Charing Cross. 

The Houses of Parliament from Westmin- 
ster Bridge. 

Suspension Bridge, and the Houses of 


The Queen's Entrance to the Houses of 

A portion of the Houses of Parliament 

The Houses of Parliament from the Thames. 

Lambeth Palace. 

Saint Clement's Church. 

The Hone Guards. 

Saint James's Park. 

Statue of George IV., and Nelson's Column. 

St. Paul's, from Southwark Bridge (very 

Tower of London (very good). 

Bas-relief at Somerset House. 

Statue of Charles I., at Trafalgar Square. 

Temple Bar. 

Interior of the Tower of London. 

Side View of Westminster Abbey. 

Fore Court of Somerset House. 

Apsis of Westminster Abbey. 

Eton College (very good). 

Exterior of Windsor Castle. 

Tower of Hercules at Windsor Castle. 

The Round Tower at Windsor Castle. 

Facade of Windsor Castle from the Terrace 
(very beautiful). 

General View of the Court Yard at Windsor 

8t. George's Tower, Windsor Castle. 

Side View of Windsor Church. 

Facade of Windsor Church. 

General View of Windsor. 

Greenwich Park. 

Observatory at Greenwich (very good). 

Two Views of Greenwich Hospital (good). 

View of the Thames at Richmond. 

Pope's Cottage at Twickenham. 

Entrance to Hampton Court Palace. 

Cedar of Libanus at Richmond. 

Richmond Hill. 

OrnamentalWater at Hampton Court. 

Vessels at low water at Boulogne. 

General View of Boulogne. 

Passengers' Quay at Boulogne. 

View of St. Rambert, near Lyons. 

The Steeple of l'Dle Barbe. 

General view of l'llle Barbe. 

Chateau of l'llle Barbe. 

The Centre of l'llle Barbe. 

Perspective of the Saone at Lyons. 

The Reserve at Marseilles. 

View of Avignon. 

View of Notre Dame de la Garde at Mar- 

Port of Toulon. 

The New Port at Marseilles. 

General view of Nice. 

View of the Port at Nice. 

Church of the Superga, Piedmont. 

View of the Po at Turin. 

Saint Charles's Place at Turin. 

View of the Port of Genoa, No. 1. 

View of the Port of Genoa, No. 2. 

Port of Genoa, No. 8. 

Port of Genoa. No. 4. 
Ditto No. 5. 
Ditto No. 6. 

Palace of Doria and the Roadsteads of Genoa. 
The Doorway of the Church, Carignano 

View of the Pier at Genoa. 
View of the Hills about Genoa, No. 1. 
The Hills of Genoa, No. 2. 
General View of Genoa. 
Carignan Church at Genoa. 
Cera Palace at Genoa. 
General View of the Hospital at Genoa. 
Descent from the Cross in the Church of 

Saint Charles at Milan. 
Panorama of Milan, No. 1. 
Panorama of Milan, No. 2. 
Palace of Justice at Milan. 
Southern Side of the Dome of Milan. 
Gate of the Ticmese%t Milan. 
Interior of the Hospital at Milan. 
Facade of the Dome at Milan. 
Roman Gate at Milan. 

Statue of Eve on the Dome at Milan, No. 1. 
A Part of the Dome at Milan. 
Facade of the Arc de la Paix at Milan. 
Front of the Church St. Celse at Milan. 
Part of the Dome at Milan. 
Part of the Dome at Milan, No. 2. 
Side View of the Arch of Peace at Milan. 
General View of Como, No. 1. 
General View of Como, No. 2. 
General View of Como, No. 3. 
General View of Como, No. 4. 
View of Como taken from the Promenade. 
Entrance to the Cathedral of Como (very fine). 
Negretti's Villa at Como. 
View of the Borgo Vico on the Lake of Como. 
Side Entrance of Como Cathedral. 
Facade of Como Cathedral. 
Perspective of the Facade of the Dome of 

St. Ambroise Church at Milan. 
Old Palace at Brescia. 
The Church of St. Andrg-aVBrescia. 
Panorama of Brescia, No. 1. 
Panorama of Brescia, No. 2. 
Panorama of Brescia, No. 3. 
Hills about Brescia. 
Entrance to the Monastery at Pavla. 
Facade of the Monastery at Pa via. 
The Left Side of the Monastery at Pavla. 
Right Side of the Monastery of Pavia. 
Vault of the Monastery of Pavia. 
Southern side of the Monastery of Pavia. 
Panorama of Padua, No. 1. 
Panorama of Padua, No. 2. 
Panorama of Padua, No. 3. 
Church of St. Justine at Padua. 
Antique Fountain at Brescia. 
Palazzo del Capitano at Padua. 
Facade of the Church St. Antoine, Padua. 
Vault of the Cathedral, Padua. 
La Loggia at Padua. 
Perspective of North Side of the Palace of 

Justice, Padua. 
Perspective of South Side of the Palace of 

Justice, Padua. 
View of the Observatory at Padua. 


Prato della Valle at Padua, No. 1. 
Prato della Valle at Padua, No. 2. 
Prato della Valle at Padua, No. 3. 
Tomb of Antenor at Padua. 
Statue of Barthelemie Calleoni at Venice. 
Palace of Lacador at Venice. 
View of the Grand Canal at Venice, No. 1. 
View of the Grand Canal, Venice. 
Bridge of Sighs at Venice, No. 1 (very beau- 
Bridge of Sighs at Venice, No. 2. 
Front View of the Giant's Staircase at Venice 

Side View of the Giant's Staircase at Venice, 

No. 1 (very beautiful). 
Giant's Staircase at Venice, No. 2. 
Facade of the Ducal Palace at Venice. 
Perspective of the Zecca at Venice. 
Perspective of St.Mark,and the Ducal Palace. 
Facade of St. Mark at Venice. 
Perspective of the Church of Salute at Venice. 
General View of the Ducal Palace at Venice 

(very good). 
View of Venice taken from Canomia Bridge. 
The Rialto at Venice. 
View of Venice, taken from the Bridge of 

the Rialto. 
Front View of the Church of the Salute, 
* Venice. 
Ruins of the Palace of Lucrezia Borgia, 

Venice (very fine). 
Palace Papadapoli, Venice. 
The Arsenal-Canal at Venice. 
Perspective of the Ducal Palace, Venice. 
Entrance to the Church of St. John and St. 

Paul, Venice. 
Garden of the Ducal Palace, Venice (very 

Quay of Esclavons at Venice. 
Column of the Lion at St. Mark's, Venice 

Perspective of Courtyard of the Ducal Palace 

at Venice. 
View of the Razzitta at Venice. 
Angle of the Ducal Palace, Venice (very fine). 
General View of Venice, No. 1. 
Ditto No. 2. 

Ditto No. 3. 

Ditto No. 4. 

Ditto No. 5. 

Ditto No. 6. 

View taken from the Fisheries at Venice. 
View of the Loggia at Venice (very good). 
Entrance to the Arsenal at Venice. 
Entrance to the Church of the Civil. 
Hospital at Venice. 
Church of St. Saviour, Venice. 
Entrance to the Church of St. Mark, Venice. 
View of St. George's Isle at Venice. 
Palace Comaro Spinelli, Venice. 
Palace Vcndramin, belonging to the Duchess 

de Berri, at Venice. 
Palace Grimani, Venice. 
Palace Barbaro, Venice. 
Palace Manin, Venice. 
Interior of the Amphitheatre at Verona. 

Exterior of the Amphitheatre at Verona. 
Tomb of ScaligerL Verona, No. 1. 
Tomb of SoaligerC Verona, No. 9. 
Place St. Pierre, Mantua. 
Statue of Ferdinand I., Florence. 
Statue of Ferdinand L, Florence. 
Dome of Florence. 

Fountain of the Pitti Palace, Florence. 
Panorama of Florence, No. 1. 
Ditto No. 2. 

Ditto No. 3. 

Ditto No. 4. 

Ditto No. 5. 

Ditto No. 6. 

Ditto No. 7. 

The Rape of the Sabines, Florence. 
The Cloisters of the Church of the Annun- 
ciation at Florence. 
View of Florence, taken from the Boboli 

Group of Hercules Wiling the Centaur- 
General View of the Square of the Grand 

Duke at Florence. 
Perspective of the Interior of the Loge at 

A small Tower at Florence. 
Perspective of the Fabrique des Offices, 

Giant's Fountain at Florence. 
Neptune's Fountain in the Garden Boboli at 

View of Pitti Palace at Florence (very good). 
Equestrian Statue of Come 1.— Florence. 
Portion of the Loge at Florence. 
Perspective of the Loge at Florence. 
Statue of Perseus at Florence. 
The Leaning Tower of Pisa (beautiful). 
The Baptistery of Pisa, No. 1. 
The Baptistery of Pisa, No. 2. 
Pisa Cathedral (very fine). 
Interior of Campo Santo, Pisa, No. 1. 
Ditto No. 2. 

Ditto No. 8. 

Ditto No. 4. 

Abside of Pisa Cathedral. 
Cathedral of Lucques. 
Castle and Bridge St. Angelo, at Rome. 
Temple of Vesta, Rome. 
Fountain of Trevi at Rome. 
Fountain de la Place St. Pierre, Rome. 
Monte Cavallo at Rome. 
Arch of Janus, Rome. 
Obelisque of the Place St. Pierre, Rome. 
Cloisters of the Church of St. Paul, at Rome. 
Ruins of the Temple of Venus, Rome. 
Facade of the Capitol, Rome. 
View of the Tiber, taken from the Port of 

the Rissa Grande, Rome. 
View of the Bridge Rocco, Rome. 
View of the Tiber, taken from the Bank of 

the Ghetto at Rome. 
Fort St. Angelo, Rome (very good). 
Isle of Tiberius, Rome. 
Obelisque in the Place du Peuple, Rome. 
Church of St. John Lateran, at Rome. 


Temple of Antonius and Faustina, Rome. 
Fountain de la Place Navona, Borne. 
Bridge St. Angelo, at Borne (very good). 
Church and Obelisgue of St. Pierre, at Rome. 
View of Rome taken from the top of the 

Staircase of the Capitol. 
Obelisque in the Place da Peuple and the 

Monte Pincio, Rome. 
Statue of Marcos Aurelius at the Capitol, 

Fountain of Aqua Felice, Rome. 
Church of St Maria Maggiore, Rome. 
Facade of the Church of St. Pierre, Rome. 
Arch of Titus. No. 1 (very good). 
Arch of Titus. No. 2 (very good). 
Arch of Constantino. No. I {very good). 
Arch of Constantine. No. 2 (very good). 
Temple of Peace, Rome (very good). 
Arch of Septimus Severus, Rome (very good). 
Arch and Aqueduct of Constantine. 
Fountain of Monte Pincio, Rome. 
Ruins of the Temple of Peace, Rome. 
Column of Phocas, Rome. 
Ruins of Temple of Jupiter, Rome (very fine). 
Forum of Trajan, Rome. 

Ruins of the Temple of Concord, Romt 

(very fine). 
Ruins of the Gnecostase, Rome. 
General View of the Roman Town. 
Place du Peuple, Borne. 
General View of the Coliseum, Rome. 
Interior of the Coliseum, No. 1. 
Interior of the Coliseum, No. 2. 
Interior of the Coliseum, No. 3. 
Interior of the Coliseum, No. 4. 
Panorama of Borne, No. 1. 
Panorama of Borne, No. 2. 
Panorama of Rome, No. 3. 
Panorama of Borne, No. 4. 
Panorama of Rome, No. 5. 
Panorama of Rome, No. 6. 
Panorama of Borne, No. 7. 
Panorama of Rome, No. 8. 
Panorama of Borne, No. 9. 
Panorama of Rome, No. 10. 
Port Bipetta, Rome. 
Perspective of St. Mark's Church, Venice 

(very beautiful). 
Manin Palace, Venice. 

7s. 6d. each. 

These are executed by the same artist as the preceding, and are of the most 
beautiful and sublime character. 

General View of Freyburg. 

View of the Bridge at Basle. 

Equestrian Statue of Rodolph D'Erlach at 

Grand Arch of the Bridge at Berne. 
Panorama of Berne taken beneath the Quay 

of the Aar. 
Perspective of the Aar at Berne. 
Side View of the Terrace at Berne. 
View of the Church and Terrace at Berne. 
Country View of Berne, taken from the Boof 

of the Church (good). 
Hotel de Ville at Berne. 
View of the Lake at Thun. 
A Cottage and the Church at Thun (very 

Peninsula of the Chateau of Rougemont, on 

the Lake of Thun. 
A Landscape on the Lake of Thun. 
A Cottage and the Chateau of Thun. 
View of Interlaken and the Jungfrau (good). 
The Mills of Interlaken. 
A Street in Interlaken. 
View of Unterseen taken from the Goldei. 
Torrent of Muhlilach, and the Church of 

A Cottage and the Lake of Brienz. 
A Street in Brienz. 

The Alp of Brienz. 

The Lake of Brienz. 

A Street in Meiringen. 

Fountain at Meiringen. 

Upper Fall of the Reichenbach (very grand). 

General View of Meiringen. 

The Hills of Breiteumatt, seen from Mei- 

A Cottage at Meiringen. 

Landscape in the Obscure Glen near Mei- 

Fall of the Staubbachat Lauterbrunnen (very 

Cottages at Lauterbrunnen. 

Falls of the Handeck (very good). 

The Inn at Handeck. 

View of the Aar, in front of the Falls of 

View of the Bridge at Handeck (very good). 

Torrent of the Smooth Bock near Handeck. 

View of the Bridge Boegelein (very fine). 

Pass of Boegelein near Handeck. 

Cottages of Rosenlaui. 

The Saw Mills of Rosenlaui (very good). 

The Rocks and Foot Path at Bosenlaui. 

The Grand Glacier of Bosenlaui (very grand). 

The Lesser Glacier of Bosenlaui (most beau- 


View of Walhorn near Bosenlani. 

Landscape taken on Wengernalp. 

View of the Eiger taken from the Wen- 

View of the Jungfrau taken from the Wen- 
gernalp (very good). 

Grand Glacier of Grindelwald. 

Lesser Glacier of Grindelwald. 

View of the Almhouses at Grimsel. 

Avalanche of Stones near Grimsel. 

View taken on the Glacier of the Aar (very 

Grand Glacier of the Rhone (very beautiful). 

General View of the Glacier by the Rhone 
(very beautiful). 

View of Oberlegesten, Valley of the Rhone. 

Valley of Viesch. 

The Glaciers and Cottages of Viesch. 

Village of Viesch. 

The Church of Viesch. 

View of Brieg, and the Simplon (very good). 

Chateau of Brieg. 

General View of Brieg. 

Bridge of the Masta (very good). 

The Edge of the Declivity of the Glacier of 
Aletsch (very beautiful). 

Village of Kemen, near the Glacier of Aletsch. 

The Church of Viege, after the Earthquake. 

Panorama of Sion (beautiful). 

Ruins of the Chapel and Ch&teau of Sion. 

View of the Valley of the Rhone at Sion. 

Chapel of All Saints at Sion. 

Mountain of the " Seminaire" at Sion. 

Vane of the Church of Lausanne 

Panorama of Lausanne (beautiful). 

The Alarm Tower of Pribourg. 

The Pass of the Sarine. 

Chapel of Notre Dame de Bon Secours at 

A Fountain at Fribourg. 
Suspension Bridge at Fribourg. 
Panorama of Fribourg, No. 1. 
Panorama of Fribourg, No. 2. 
Panorama of Fribourg, No. 3. 
The Banks of the Sarine at Fribourg. 
The Linden Tree of Morat, and the Hotel 

de Ville of Fribourg. 
View of the Valley of the Sarine. 
A Cottage at Clarens, Lake of Geneva. 
Statue of Jean Jacques Rousseau, at Geneva. 


THE LONDON STEREOSCOPIC COMPANY avail themselves of this 
opportunity to submit the following series of Selections, which comprise every- 
thing that can be desired by those desirious of possessing a collection of these 
exquisite works of Art. 


A beautifully-finished Stereoscope, with all the recent improvements, mounted on an elegant 
engine-turned stand, and ornamental base, with a choice collection of albumen and 
collodion binocular views, from Padua, Milan, Venice, Pisa, Florence, the Rhine, Switzer- 
land, Pompeii, &c, also celebrated works of Art from the Paris Exhibition and Crystal 
Palace at Sydenham, together with a varied amusing collection of " Wilkie"-like 
photographs, embracing almost every variety of human life, with a polished box, 
suitable for any nobleman or gentleman's drawing-room table. The box, arranged 
to contain the instrument and pictures, with crest engraved on the same if required, 
20 Guineas. 


A collection, embracing all the preceding subjects, but proportionably decreased in number, 
with an elegant mahogany Stereoscope and stand, and box for slides, 10 Guineas. 


An elegant selection from the above, with mahogany Stereoscope and box, without stand, 
5 Guineas. 

• The above trill be carefully packed and forwarded on receipt of remittance or check, 
stating which Selection is preferred. 

Selection*, with Instrument, for 21s. can be made if desired. 


Description and Prices of Sir David Brewster's Lenticular - 

s. d. 
I.— Japanned Tin Stereoscope, open at sides, front and bottom 2 

2. — Plain Mahogany do. open in front and at bottom, with box eye pieces, from 3 

Ditto, with brass eye-pieces, and superior lenses ... 6 6 

3.— Polished do. do. with email door in front, open at bottom, and brass 

adjusting mounts 7 6 

4.— Do. do. Walnut or Sycamore Wood, ground glass at bottom, 

brass mounts 

5. — Do. do. do. sides curved 

6. — Polished Mahogany Stereoscope, with horizontally shifting eye pieces ... 
7. — Do. Rosewood do. do. do. do. 

8.— Beautifully Polished Mahogany do., brass shifting and adjusting eye pieces, 

reflecting flap at bottom, and small ivory spring to retain the slides 21 a 

0.— Very Superior Rosewood or Mahogany, with patent adjusting screw and rack 

work, sliding eye pieces 

10. — Do. do. beautifully curved „ 

11. — Do. do. with all the above appliances, in beautifully 

polished ebony, ivory patent screw, &c 

12. — Beautifully inlaid Papier Mache' (a magnificent Wedding present) 

13. — Book Stereoscopes, adapted for the pocket, carrying a dozen slides, if required... 
14.— Just Out.— An. elegant new Patent Spring Folding Stereoscope (adapted for 

travelling) 21 















Tinted Papkbs, representing Morning, Noon, Evening, and 2fight, for colouring Trans- 
parencies, Is. the set of four. 


8. d. 

Plain Mahogany box to hold Stereoscopic slides 5 

Plain Mahogany box to hold Stereoscope and slides 10 6 

Finely Polished Rosewood do. do. lined 31 6 

The Stereoscopes can be mounted on telescopic brass stands for greater convenience of viewing 

the objects, from 15s. to 2ls. each, extra. They are made so that the Stereoscope can 

be detached at any time it is required separately. 

Shippers and the Trade supplied. 

STEREOSCOPIC PORTRAITS from 10s. to 31s. 6d. 

Single Portraits of all sizes and beautifully Coloured. 





A Complete Set of Apparatus, 

For taking Portraits or Views Stereoscopically, 
Price, £6 6s. 
The above Set is of the most perfect character, and supplies the Photo- 
graphic Tourist with all the requisite Materials. 

A Complete Set of Stereoscopic Apparatus, with 

View and Portrait Lens, 

Price, £10 10s. 

The Apparatus, &c., of this Set is of a more finished character than the 
above, and the Camera clamped with brass, packed in strong case, and is 
admirably adapted for export to India, or other warm climates. 

Photographic Camera, 

With beautifully mounted double Achromatic Lens, taking Pictures and 

Portraits 4J by 8£, with all the requisite Apparatus and Chemicals 

packed in box, with lock and key. 

Price, 46 6s. 

Next Size Larger, taking Portraits 6j by 4J. 
Price, £10 10s. 

The Lenses of the above Sets of Apparatus are warranted, and for sharpness 
and accuracy in their performance, are unsurpassed. 

s. d. 

Nitrate of Silver 3 11 peroz. 

Iodized Collodion 8 per lb. 

Plain do 7 

Iodizing Solution 1 per oz. 

For detailed List of Apparatus and Chemicals see Photographic Catalogue. 


a Stop screw, by which the instrument is set to any convenient height. 

b Hinge joint, on which the instrument is moved to any required angle. 

e Adjusting pulley to regulate colour and light. 

d The Colour reflector from which tints, as of Moonlight, Sunrise, Midday, and Sunset, 

can be reflected on transparent pictures. 
. e The eye pieces in which the optical arrangements are placed, and adjusted to variations 

in focal distance, in the different conditions of sight. 

A. P. 8haw, Trinter, 10, Devonshire Street, Bbhopegate, City. 

Albemarle Street, London-. 
July, 1856. 


ABBOTT'S (Rev. J.) Philip Musgrave ; or, Memoirs of a Church of 
England Missionary in the North American Colonies. Post 8vo. 2s. 64. 

ABERCROMBIE'S (Johk, M.D.) Enquiries concerning the Intel- 
lectual Powers and the Investigation of Truth. Fourteenth Edition. 
Fcap.8vo. 6s. 6d. 

Philosophy of the Moral Feelings. Tenth 

Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 4s. 

Pathological and Practical Researches on th* 

Diseases of the Stomach, the Intestinal Canal, the Liver, and other 
Viscera of the Abdomen. Third Edition, Fcap.Svo. 6*. . 

ACLAND'S (Rbv. Charles) Popular Account of the Manners and 
Customs of India, Illustrated with Numerous Anecdotes. Post8vo. 2*.6d. 

ADDISON'S WORKS. A New Edition, with a New Life and 
Notes. By Rev. Whttwell Elwin. 4 Vols. 8vo. , In Preparation. 

iESCHYLUS. (The Agamemnon and Choephoroe.) A New 
Edition of the Text, with Notes, Critical, Explanatory, and Philological, 
for the Use of Students. By Rev. W. Peilb, D.D. Second Edition. 
2 Vols. 8vo. 9s. each. 

.aSSOP'S FABLES. A New Version, chiefly from the Original 
Greek. By Rev. Thomas James, M.A. Illustrated with 100 Woodcuts, 
by John Tenxibl. 21st Edition. Post 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

AGRICULTURAL (The) Journal. Published (half-yearly) by the 
Royal Agricultural Society of England. 8vo. 10s. 

AMBER-WITCH (The). The most interesting Trial for Witch- 
craft ever known. Edited by Dr. Meixhold. Translated from the 
German by Lady Duff Gordon. Post 8vo. 2*. 6d. 

ARABIAN NIGHTS. A New Translation. By E. W. Lank. 
With Explanatory Notes, and 600 Woodcuts. Medium 8vo. 21s. 

ARISTOPHANES. The Birds and the Clouds. Translated 
from Suvern by W. R. Hamilton, FJt.S. 2 Vols. Post 8vo. 9s. 

ARTHUR'S (Little) History of England. By Ladt Callcott. 
Eighteenth Edition, Woodcuts. 18mo. 

AUNT IDA'S Walks and Talks ; a Story Book for Children. By 
a Ladt. Woodcuts. tfmo. 6>. 


ADMIRALTY PUBLICATIONS ; Issued by direction of the Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty:— 

1. A MANUAL OF SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY, for the Use of Officers in 

H.M. Navy and Travellers in General. By Various Hands. Edited 
by Sib J. F. Herschel, Bart Second Edition. Post 8vo. 10*. 6d. 


1836 to 1847. Royal 4to. 50a. each. 


1836, 1837, 1842, 8s. each; and 1647, 14*. Royal 4to. 

1836.— Bessel's Refraction Tables. 

Tables for converting Errors of RA. and NJ\JD. into Errors 
oT Longitude and EMKptie P.Dl 
1837.— Logarithms of Sines and Cosines to every Ten Seconds 
of Time. 
Table for converting Sidereal into Mean Solar Time. 
1842.— Catalogue of 1439 Stars. 
1847.— Twelve Years' Catalogue of Stars. 
TIONS. 1840 to 1847. R«yal4to. 80s. eat*. 
GICAL OBSERVATIONS, 1848 to 1653. Royal 4to. 50*. each. 


1769 to 1830. Royal 4to. 60s. 

7. _ . _ — LUNAR OBSERVATIONS. 1750 

to 1830. 2 Vols. Royal 4to. 50a. each. 

8. BERNOULLI'S SEXCENTENARY TABLE. London, 1779. 4to. 5*. 



10. FUNDAMENTA ASTRONOMIJE: HtgiomtmtH, 1816. Folio. 40*. 


London, 1768. 4to. 2*. 6cL 

MENTS. Lo*S*n, 1767. 4ft*. 2*.«tf. 

London, 1782. 4to. 21*. 


4to. 2s. 

15. ENCKE'S BERLINER JAHRBUCH, for 1830. Berlin, 1828. 8vo. fl». 


4to. 10s. 


17S7. 4tm. 6tL 


NUMBERS. 1781. Folio. 7*. 64. 


TUDE. 1821. 8ve. 10*. 


▼hh the Tables, 182L 4*o. 7&.<6<f. 


1822, 8s; 1823, 4*. &Z. 1824 to 1835, 8vo. 4*. each. 


WATCH. 1767. 4to. 2c«2. 


ANUM. 4to. 25. M. 

24. TABULAE MOTUUM SOLIS ET LUNJE. 1770. 4to. 6*. 


TINGEN, from 1756 to 176JU 18M.. Folia. ?**<*. 


Admiralty Publications — continued. 

28. NAUTICAL ALMANACS, from 1767 to 1859. 8vo. 2*. 6cL eaeh. 


up to 1812. 8vo. 6*. 1884-54. 8vo. 5s. 

28. -— SUPPLEMENTS, 1828 to 1833, 1837 and 1838. 

8vo. 2s. each. 

TABLE requisite to be uaed with the N.A. 

1781. 8vo. 5*. 
30. POND'S ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 1811 to 1835. 4to. 21*. 

■ 11. RAMSDEN*S ENGINE for Dividing Mathematical Instruments. 

4to. 5*. 
H 88. -» ■ ENGINE for Dividing Straight Links. 4to. 6*. 

33. SABINE'S PENDULUM EXPERIMENTS to Determine the Figure 

of the Earth. 1625. 4to. 40*. 

34. SHEPHERD'S TABLES for Correcting Lunar Distances. 1772. 

Royal 4to. 21*. 

from the SUN, and 10 STARS. 1787. Folio. 5*.«. 
•36. TAYLOR'S SEXAGESIMAL TABLE. 1780. 4to. 15*. * 



of Madeira. 1822. 4to. 6*. 


of Longitude between Dover, Portsmouth, and Falmouth. 1823 
4to. 6s. 

40. VENUS and JUPITER: Observations of, compared with the Tables. 

London, 1822. 4to. 2*. 


1777. 4to. 21*. 


made in the Southern Hemisphere. 1764—1771. 1788. 4 to. 
10*. 6rf. 

AUSTIN'S (Sarah) Fragments from German Prose Writers. 
Translated, with Biographical Notes. Post 8to. 10*. 

, Translation of Ranke's Political and Ecclesiastical 

History of the Popes of Rome. Third Edition. 2 Vols. 8vo. 24*. 

BABBAGE'S (Chaelbs) Economy of Machinery and Manufactures. 

Fourth Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 6*. 

, Table of the Logarithms of the Natural Numbers 

from 1 to 106000. Fourth Edition. Royal 8vo. 6*. 

— Ninth Bridgewater Treatise. Second Edition. 8vo. 

9s. ed. 

Reflection* on the Decline of Science In England, 

and on some of its Causes. 4to. 15*. 

Exposition* of 1851 ; or, Views of the Industry, the 

Science, and the Government of England. Second Edition. 8vo. 7*. Qd. 

BANKES* (High* Hon. G.) Story of Corfu Castle, with 
documents relating to the Time of the Civil Wars, &c. Woodcuts. Post 
8Vo. 10*. 6& 

BASSOMPIERRE'S Memoirs of Ms Embassy to the Court of 
England in ltotf. Translated with Notes. 8vo 8*. 64. 

» 2 


BARROW'S (Sir John) Autobiographical Memoir, including 
Reflections, Observations, and Reminiscences at Home and Abroad. 
From Earlv Life to Advanced Age. Portrait. 8vo. 16#. 

Voyages of Discovery and Research within the 

Arctic Regions, from 1818 to the present time, in search of a North- 
west Passage : with Two Attempts to reach the North Pole. Abridged 
and arranged from the Official Narratives. 8vo. 15*. 

(John) Naval Worthies of Queen Elizabeth's Reign, 

their Gallant Deeds, Daring Adventures, and Services in the infant state 
of the British Navy. 8vo. 14*. 

Life and Voyages of Sir Francis Drake. With nume- 
rous Original Letters. Post 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

BEES AND FLOWERS. Two Essays, reprinted from the " Quar- 
terly Review." Fcap. 8vo. 1*. each. 
BELL'S (Sib Charles) Anatomy and Philosophy of Expression as 

connected with the Fine Arts. Fourth Edition. Plates. Impl.8vo. 21s. 

Mechanism and Vital Endowments of the Hand as 

evincing Design. The Bridgewater Treatise. Sixth Edition. Wood- 
cuts. Post8vo. Is. 6d. 

BENEDICT'S (Jules) Sketch of the Life and Works of Felix 

Mendelssohn Bartholdy. Second Edition. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

BERTHA'S Journal during a Visit to her Uncle in England. 
Containing a Variety of Interesting and Instructive Information. Seventh 
Edition. Woodcuts. 12mo. 7a. W. 

The Heiress in her Minority; or, the Progress of 

Character. By Author of " Bxbtha'b Joubkal." 2 Vols. 12mo. 

BIRCH'S (Samuel) History of Ancient Pottery : Egyptian, Asiatic, 
Greek, Roman, Etruscan, and Celtic. With Illustrations. 8vo. (Nearly 

BIRTHS (W. R.) Hurricane Guide. Being an Attempt to connect 
the Rotatory Gale, or Revolving Storm, with Atmospheric Waves. 
With Circles on Cards. Pout8vo. 8*. 

BIOSCOPE (The) ; or, the Dial of Life explained. By Grakvillk 

Pekk. Second Edition. With Plate. 12mo. 12*. 

BLAINE (Roberton) on the Laws of Artistic Copyright and their 
Defects, for Artists, Engravers, Printsellers, &c. 8vo. 8*. 8d. 

BLUNTS (Rev. J. J.) Undesigned Coincidences in the Writings 
of the Old and New Testament, an Argument of their Veracity : with 
an Appendix containing Undesigned Coincidences between the Gospels, 
Acts, and Josephus. Fourth Edition. 8vo. 9s. 

History of the Church in the First Three Centuries. 

Being the substance of Lectures delivered before the University of 
Cambridge. 8vo. 9*. 6d. 

: Principles for the proper understanding of the Mosaic 

Writings, stated and applied, together with an Incidental Argument for 
the truth of the Resurrection of our Lord. Being the Hulsrax Lectures 
for 1832. Post8vo. 6s. Bd. 

BOOK OP COMMON PRAYER. With 1000 Illustrations of 
Borders, Initials, and Woodcut Vignettes. A New Edition. Medium 
8vo. 21a. cloth, 31*. 6d. calf, or 42s. morocco. 

BOSWELL'S (Jamks) Life of Dr. Samuel Johnson. Including the 
Tour to the Hebrides, with Notes by Sir W. Scott. Edited by the Right 
Hon. John Wilsok Cbokbr. Third Edition. Portraits. One Volume. 
Royal 8vo. 15s. 



BORROWS (George) Lavengro ; The Scholar— The Gipsy— and 
the Priest Portrait. 8 Vols. Post8vo. 30*. 

Bible in Spain; or the Journeys/ Adventures, and 

Imprisonments of an Englishman in an Attempt to circulate the 
Scriptures in the Peninsula. 3 Vols. Post 8vo. 27*., or Cheap Edition, 
16mo, 6*. t 

Zincali, or the Gipsies of Spain; their Manners, 

Customs, Religion, and Language. 2 Vols. Post 8vo. 18*., or Cheap 
Edition, 16mo. 6*. 

BRAY'S (Mbs.) Life of Thomas Stothard, R.A. With Personal 
Reminiscences. Illustrated with Portrait and 60 Woodcuts of his 
chief works. 4to. 21s. 

BREWSTER'S (Sir David) Martyrs of Science, or the Lives of 
Galileo, Tycho Brahe, and Kepler. Second Edition. Fcap. 8vo. As. 6d. 

— More Worlds than One. The Creed of the Philo- 
sopher and the Hope of the Christian. Seventh Thousand. Post 8vo. 6s. 

BRITISH CLASSICS. A New Series of Standard English 
Authors, printed from the most correct text, and edited with elucidatory 
notes. Published in demy 8vo. Volumes, Is. 64. each. 
Already Published. 
GOLDSMITH'S WORKS. Edited by Peter Cunningham, F.S.A. 

Vignettes. 4 Vols. 

Edited by William Smith, LL.D. Portrait and Maps. 8 Vols. 

By Peter Cunningham, F.S.A. 
LORD BYRON'S POETICAL WORKS. Edited, with Notes. 6 vols. 

In Preparation. 
WORKS OF ALEXANDER POPE. Edited by the Right Hon. John 

Wilson Assisted by Peter Cunningham, F.S. A. 
WORKS OF DRYDEN. Edited with Notes. 

HUME'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. A new Edition, carefully revised 
throughout, with Notes and Commentations, to correct his errors and 
supply his deficiencies. 
WORKS OF SWIFT. Edited with Notes. 
WORKS OF JOSEPH ADDISON. Edited, with Notes. 

1831-82, 13s. 6d. Cambridge, 1833, 12s. Edinburgh, 1834, 16*. Dublin, 
1835, 13*. 64. Bristol, 1836, 12s. Liverpool, 1837, 16*. 6d. Newcastle, 
1838, 16*. Birmingham, 1839. 13*. 6d. Glasgow, 1840, 15*. Plymouth, 
1841, 13*. 6d. Manchester, 1842, 10*. 6d. Cork, 1843, 12*. York, 1814. 
20*. Cambridge, 1846, 12*. Southampton, 1846, 15*. Oxford, 1847, 18*. 
Swansea, 1848, 9*. Birmingham, 1849, 10*. Edinburgh, 1850, 16*. Ipswich, 
1851, 16*. &*. Belfast, 1862, 15*. Hull, 1853, 10*. 6d. Liverpool, 1854, 18*. 

BROGDEN'S (Rev. J as.) Illustrations of the liturgy and Ritual 
of the United Church of England and Ireland. Being Sermons and 
Discourses selected from the Works of eminent Divines of the 17th 
Century. 8 Vols. Post8vo. 27*. 

Catholic Safeguards against the Errors, Corruptions, 

and Novelties of the Church of Rome. Being Sermons and Tracts selected 
from the Works of eminent Divines of the 17th Century. Second Edition 
With Preface and Index. 3 Vols. 8vo. 36*. 

BROOKE'S (Sir James) Journals of Events in Borneo, including 
the Occupation of Labuan, and a Visit to the Celebes. Together with 
the Expedition of H.M.S. Iris. By Capt. Rodvby Mujtdy R.N. 
Plates. 2 Vols. 8vo. 32*. 


BROUGHTON'S (Low) Journey through Albania and other 
Provinces < f Turkey in Europe and Asia, to CoastansJaapla, 1809—10. 
New Edition. Maps and Woodcuts. 2 Vols. 8vo. 80*. 


Ma*. Sixth Edition. 16mo. ft*. 

BUNBUR Y'S (C. J. F.) Journal of a Residence at the Gape of Good 
Hope ; with Exournions into the Interior, and Notes on the Natural 
History and Native Tribes of the Country. Woodouta. Poet 8vo. 9*. 

BUNYAN (John) and Oliver Cromwell Select Biographies. By 

SOBBBT SOUTUSY. Post 8VO. 2*. dd. 

BUONAPARTE'S (Napoieok) Confidential Correspondence with his 

Brother Joseph sometime King of Spain. 2 vols. 8 vo. 2$*, 

BUBGHERSH'S (Lobd) Memoir of the Operations of the Allied 
Annies under Prince Schwarzenberg and Marshal Bluoher during the 
latter end of 1813— 14. 8vo, 21*. 

Early Campaigns of the Duke of Wellington in 

Portugal and Spain. 8vo, 89.64. 
BURN'S (Lieut-Col.) French and English Dictionary of Naval 

and Military Technical Terms. Third Edition, Crown 8v* 15*. 

BURNES' (Sib Alexander) Journey to the City ©f CabooU 

Second Edition. Plates. 8vo. 18*. 

BURNS* (Robert) Life. By Jqhk Gibson Lookbaby. Fifth 
EdUtim. Feap. 8vo. 35. 

BURR'S (G. D.) Instructions in Practical Surveying, Topogra- 
phical Plan Drawing, and on sketching ground without Instruments. 
Second Edition. Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 7*. Ctt 

BUXTON'S (Sir Fowxll) Memoirs. With Selections from, his 
Correspondence. By his Son. Fifth Edition. Svo. 10*.; or, -Popular 
Edition, Post8vo. Sa.&i. 

BYRON'S (Lord) Life and Letters. By Thomas Moor* Plates. 

6 Tols. Feap. 8vo. 18c 

- One Volume, royal 8vo. 12*. 

Poetical Works. 6 Vols. 8vo. 45a. — or 

Plates. 10 Vols. Fca> 8vo. 80*. 

One Volume, royal 8vo. 12?. 

Pocket Edition. 8 Vols. 24mo. 20*. Or 

teparvteto a* follow .—Childe Harold; Dramas, 9 Vote.; Tales and 
Poem*; Miscellanies, 2 Vols.; Beppo and Don Juan, 2 Vela. 

Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. Illustrated Edition. 

With 80 Vignettes, Crown 8vo. 10*. 64. 

Beauties — Poetry and Prose. Feap. 8vo. 8*. 

BUTTMAN'S LEXILOGUS; or, a Critical Examination of the 

, Meaning and Etymology of numerous Greek Words aad Passages, 

intended principally f»r Homer and Hesiod. Translated, and edited, with 

Esyiaiwtorv Notes and copious Indexes, by Rbv. j. B. $xshi.a*u. 

Thfrd Bdttfon. 8vo. 14s. 




BUTTMAN'S Irregular Greek Terbs; With all tike Tenses 
extant— their Formation, Meaning, Usage, and accompanied by an 
Index. Translated* with. Notes, by Rev. J. K. Fishlake. Second 
Edition. 8vo. 7r.6tf. 

CALYIN'S (John) life. With Extracts from his Correspondence. 
By ¥homa9 H. Dyeb. Ptnrtrafr. 8vo. 15s. 

CALLCOTT'S (La*i) Little Arthur's History of England. 

Eighteenth Edition. Woodcuts. t8du>. 2s.. Ml 

CAREME'S FRENCH COOKERY. Translated hy W. Hall 

Second Edition. Plated 8vo. 16*. 

CARMICHAEL'S (A. N.) Greek Yerhs. Their Formations, 
Ztregnlaritiea, and Defects. Skcomd Edition. FoatSvo. 8$.6d. 

CARNARVON'S (Lord) Portugal, Gallicia, and the Basque 
Provinces. From Notes made during a Journey to those Countries. 
Third Edition. PostSvo. 6*. 

CAMPBELL'S (Loan) Lives of tht Lord Chancellors and Keepers. 
of the Great Seal of England. From the Earliest Times to the Death of 
Lord Bidon in 1888. fittrd Edition. 7 Vols. Svo. 1029. 

— ■ Lives of the Chief Justices of England. From the 

Norman Conquest to the Death' of Lord Mansfield. 2 Yob. 8vo. 30s. 

Life of Lord Bacon. Reprinted from the Lives of 

the Chancellors. Fcap. 8vo. 2s. 

(George) Modern India. A Sketch of the System 

of Civil Government. With some Account of the- Natives and Native 
Institutions; Second Edition. Svo. 16*. 

— India as it may he. An Outline of a proposed 

Government and Policy. 8vo. 12s. 

(Thos.) Specimens of the British Poets* With Bio- 
graphical and Critical Notices, and an Essay on English Poetry. Third 
Edition, Portrait. Royal 8vo. low. 

Short Lives of the British Poets. With, a* Essay 

on English Poetry. Post 8vo. 5«. 

CASTLEKEAGH (The) DESPATCHES, feom- the commencement 
of the official career of the lake Viaeowat Castkneagh. to the elose of his 
life. Edited by the Mabqsis or Lobdondob&t. 12Vels.8vo. 14s. each. 

CATHCART'S (Sib George) Commentaritfr on the War in Russia 
and Germany, 1812-18. Plans. 8ve. lis. 

CHARMED ROE (Thb) ; or, The Story of the Little Brother and 
Sister. By Otto Spscxtnu Plates. 16mo. b». 

CLARENDON (Lord Chancellor) ; Lives of his Friends and 
Contemporaries, illustrative of Portraits in his Gallery. By Lady 
The bus a Lewis. Portraits. 8 Vols. 8vo. 42*. 

CLARK (Sin James) On the Sanative Influence of Climate, with an 
Account of the Best Places for Invalids in the South of Europe, &c. Fourth 
Edition. Post8vo. 10».W. 

CLAUSE WITZ'S (Geneba.l Carl YoN>Campaign of 1812, in Russia. 
Translated from the German by Lord Elue»mkbe. Map. 8vo. 10*. 6d. 

CLIYE'S (Lord) Life. By Rsvi G. R. Gun*, M.A. Fwrt S*o. 6s. 


COLERIDGE'S (Samuel Taylor) Table-Talk. Fourth Edition. 
Portrait Fcap. 8vo. 6s. 

(Henry Nelson) Introductions to the Study of 

the Greek Classic Poets. Third Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 6s. &*. 

COLONIAL LIBRARY. [See Home and Colonial Lib«ry.] 

COMBER'S (Dean) Friendly Advice to the Roman Catholics 
of England. By Rev. Dr. Hook. Fcap.8vo. 8s. 

COOKERY (Domestic). Founded on Principles of Economy and 
Practical Knowledge, and adapted for Private Families. New Edition. 
Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. 5s. 

CR ABBE'S (Rev. George) Life and Letters. By his Son. Portrait. 
Fcap. 8vo. Ss., or with Plates, 6*. 

Life and Poetical Works. Plates. 8Yols. Fcap. 8vo. 

24*.; or, One Volume. Royal 8vo. 10s. Sd. 

CUMMINGS (R. Gordon) Five Years of a Hunter's Life in the Far 

Interior of South Africa. Fourth Edition. With Woodcuts. 2 Vols 
Post 8vo. 12s. Or Cheap Edition, Fcap. 8vo. 

CTTRZON'S (Hon. Robert) Visits to the Monasteries of the Levant. 

Fourth Edition. Woodcuts. Post8vo. 15s. 

Armenia and Erzeroum. A Year on the Frontiers 

of Russia, Turkey, and Persia. Third Edition. Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 
7s. 6d. 

CUNNINGHAM'S (Allan) Life of Sir David Wilkie. With his 
Journals, and Critical Remarks on Works of Art. Portrait 3 Vols. 
8vo. 42s. 

Poems and Songs. Now first collected 

and arranged, with Biographical Notice. 24mo. 2s. 6d. 

(Capt. J. B.) History of the Sikhs. From 

the Origin of the Nation to the Battle of the Sutlej. Second Edition. 
Maps. 8vo. 16s. 

(Peter) London— Past and Present. A Hand- 
book to the Antiquities, Curiosities, Churches, Works of Art, Public 
Buildings, and Places connected with interesting and historical asso- 
ciations. Second Edition. Post8vo. 16s. 

Modern London. A complete Guide for 

Visitors to the Metropolis. Map. 16mo. 5s. 

Environs of London. Including a circle of 30 

miles round St. Paul's. With Hints for Excursions by Rail,— Road, — 
and River. Post 8vo. In the Press. 

Westminster Abbey. Its Art, Architecture, 

and Associations. Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. Is. 

Works of Oliver Goldsmith. A New Edition 

now first printed from the last editions which passed under the Author's 
own eye. Vignettes. 4 vols. 8vo. 80s. (Murray's British Classics.) 

Lives of Eminent English Poets. By Samuel 

Johnson, LL.D. A New Edition, with Notes. 3 vols. 8vo. 22s. 6d. 
(Murray's British Classics.) 



CROKER'S (Right Hon. J. W.) Progressive Geography for Children. 

Fifth Edition. 18mo. U.6d. 

Stories for Children, Selected from the History of 

England. Fifteenth Edition. Woodcuts. 16mo. 2*. 64. 
_ ^ Bosweli's Life of Johnson. Including the Tour to the 

Hebrides. Third Edition. Portraits. Royal 8vo. 15s. 

Lord Hbrvkt's Memoirs of the Reign of George the 

Second, from his Accession to the death of Queen Caroline. Edited 
with Notes. Second Edition. Portrait. 2 Vols. 8vo. 21s. 

Essays on the Early French Revolution. Contributed 

to the " Quarterly Review." . 8vo. 

— History of the Guillotine. Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. 1*. 

CROMWELL (Oliver) and John Bunyan. Select Biographies. 
By Robert Southey. Post 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

DARWIN'S (Charles) Journal of Researches into the Natural 
History and Geology of the Countries visited during a Voyage round the 
World. Post8YO. 8». ft*. 

DAYY'S (Sir Humphry) Consolations in Travel; or, Last Days 
of a Philosopher. Fifth Edition. Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. 6s. 

- - — Salmonia ; or, Days of Fly Fishing. With some Account 
of the Habits of Fishes belonging to the genus Salmo. Fourth Edition, 
Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. 6s. 

DENNIS' (George) Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria; or, the 
extant Local Remains of Etruscan Art Plates. 2 Vols. 8vo. 42a. 
Summer in Andalusia. Second Edition, Revised. 

Post 8vo. 

DEYEREUX'S (Hon. Capt., R.N.) Lives and Letters of the Devereux 

Earls of Essex, in the Reigns of Elizabeth, James I., and Charles I., 
1640—1646. Chiefly from unpublished documents. Portraits. 2 Vols. 
8vo. 30*. 

DODGSON'S (Ret. C.) Controversy of Faith; or, Advice to Candi- 
dates for Holy Orders. Containing an Analysis and Exposition of the 
Argument by which the Catholic Interpretation of the Baptismal Services 
is to be vindicated. 12mo. 3s. 

DOG-BREAKING; the Most Expeditious, Certain, and Easy 
Method, whether great excellence or only mediocrity be required. By 
Likut.-Col. Hutchinson. Third Edition. Revised and enlarged. 
Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 

DOMESTIC MODERN COOKERY. Founded on Principles of 
Economy and Practical Knowledge, and adapted for Private Families. 
New Edition. Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. 6s. 

DOUGLAS'S (General Sir Howard) Treatise on the Theory 
and Practice of Gunnery. Fourth Edition. Plates. 8vo. 21s. 

Treatise on the Principle and Construction of Military 

Bridges, and the Passage of Rivers in Military Operations. Third 
Edition. Plates. 8vo. 21*. 

DRAKE'S (Sir Francis) Life, Voyages, and Exploits, by Sea and 
Land. By John Babbow. Third Edition. Post 8vo. 2s. 64. 

DRINKWATER'S (John) History of the Siege of Gibraltar. 
1779-1783. With a Description and Account of that Garrison from the 
Earliest Periods. Post8vo. 2s. Qd. 


DRYDEN*S (Jqhh) Work*. A New Edition, based upon Sir 

Walter Scott's Edition, entirely rerised. 8vo. In Preparation. 

DUDLEY'S (Bam. or) Letters to the late Bishop of Llandaff. 

Second Edition. Portrait 8vo. 10*. 6d. 

DURHAM'S (Amkral Sib Philip) Naval Life and Services. By 

Capt. Alexander Mtjxbat. 8vo. 5*. Qd. 
DYER'S (Thomas H.) Life and Letters of John Calvin. Compiled 

from authentic Sources. Portrait. 8vo. 15«. 

EASTLAKE (Sir Charles) The Schools of Painting in Italy. 
From the EarHest times. From the German of KmsLEB. Edited, with 
Notes. Third Edition. Illustrated with 100 Engrarlngs from the Old 
Masters. 2 Vela. Post8vo. 30*. 

Contributions to the Literature of the Fine Arts* 

8to. 12a. 
EDWARDS' (W. H.) Yoyage up the River Amazon, including a 

Visit to Para. Post8vo. 2*. to. 

EGERTON'S (How. Capt. Prancis) Journal of a Winter's Tour in 
India; with a Visit to KepauL Woodcuts. 2 Vote. Post8vc 18*. 

ELDON'S (Loan Chancellor) Public and Private Life, with Selec- 
tions from hia Correspondence aad Diarbes. By Horace Twiss. Third 
Edition. Portrait. 2 Vols. Post8vo. 21*. 

ELLBSMERE'S (Lord) Two Sieges of Vienna by tfce Turks. 
Translated from the German. Post 8ro. 2a. 6d. 

Second Campaign of Radetzky in Piedmont. 

The Defence of Tetneswar and the Camp, of the Ban. From the German. 
Post8Vo. 6*. fti 

; Life and Character of the Duke of Wellington ; 

a Discourse. Second Edition. Fcap. 8ve. 64. 

'■ Campaign of 1812 in Russia, from the German 

of General Carl Von Clausewitz. Map. 8vo. 10*. ft*. 

Pilgrimage,, aad other Poena* Sktatcated. 

Crown 4fe>. 24*. 

ELIOT'S (Bon. W. G. C.) Khans of the Crimea. Being a Nar- 
rative of an Embassy from Frederick the Great to the Court of Krim 
Gerai. A Prelude to the present Straggle between Snasia.aad Turkey. ' 
Translated from the German of Thsqdor* Mukdx. Post 8*0. 6*. 

ELPBINSTONE'S (How. Mototstuart) History of India— the 

Hindoo and Mahomedan Periods. Third Edition. Map. 8vo. 18*. 

XLWIN'S (Rev. W.) Lives of Eminent British Poets. Prom 
Chaucer to Wordsworth. 4 Vote. 8vo. In Preparole*. 

ENGLAND (Histort or) from the Peace of Utrecht to the Peace 

of Versailles, 1715—83. By Lord Mahox. Library Edition, T Vols., 
8vo, 93*. ; or, Popular Edition, 7 Vote. Post 8*o, 42s. 

_- — _ Proaft th* First lavawon by the Romans, 

down to the 14th year of Qnee* Victoria's Beiga. By Mx»~Mabkhah. 
88th Thousand. Woodcuts. 12mo. 6s. 

_ A* u is: Social, Political, and Industrial, in the. 

Middle of the 19th Century. By W. Jesmo*. 2 Vote. Poet Svo. 18s. 
and ' France under the Hoase of Lancaster. 

With an JforvodiiBtoRy View of the Early Bsformetfcn. Secomt Edition . 
8vo. 15*. 



RUSSIA: or, Impressions of Manners 

and Society daring a Ten Yean* Residence in that Country. Fifth 
Thousand. Woodcuts. Post8vo. lOs&Z. 

BRSKINE'S (Can., R.N.) Journal of a Cruise among the Islands 
of the Western Pacific, including the Fejees and others inhabited by 
the Polynesian Negre Races. Plates. Sn>. 16s. 

ESKIMAUX (Thi) and English Vocabulary, for the use of Travellers 
in the Arctic Regions. 16mo. 8s. 6d. 

ESSAYS FROM "THE TIMES.* Being a Selection from the 
Literary Papers which have appeared in that Journal. 7th Thousand 
2 vols. Foap.8TO. 8s. 

EXETER'S (Bishop op) Letters to the late Charles Butler, on the 
Theological parts of his Book of the Roman Cathofte Church; with 
Remarks on certain Works of Dr. Milner and Dr. Lrngard, and on some 
parts of the Evidence ot Dr. Doyle. Second Edition, dvo. 16*. 

FAIRY RING (The), A Collection of Tales and Stories for Young 
Perseus. From the German. By J. £. Taymml Illustrated by Sksabd 
Dovlb. Steond Edition. Feap.8vo. 

FALKNER'S (Fain.) Muck Manual for the Use of Farmers. A 
Treatise tm the Nature and Value of Manures. Sooond Edition, with a 
Glossary of Terms and an Index. Fcap. 8vo. 5*. 

FAMILY RECEIPT-BOOK. A Collection of a Thousand Valuable 
and Useful Receipts. Fcap. 8vo. 5s. Qd. , 

FANCOURT'S (Col.) History of Yucatan, from Us Discovery 
to the Close of the 17th Century. With Map. 8vo. 10s. ft*. 

FARINI'S (Luiai Carlo) History of the Roman State, 1815-50. 
Translated from the Italian. By Right Hon. W. £. Gladstobtk. 
4 Vols. 8vo. 12o. each. 

FEATHERSTONHAUGH'S (G. W.) Tour through the Slave States 
of North America, from the River Potomac, to Texas and the Frontiers 
ef Mexico. Plates. 2 Vols. 8ro. Ms. 

FELLOWS' (Sir Charles) Travels and Researches in Asia: Minor, 
more particularly in the Province of Lycia. New Edition* Plates. Post 
8vo. 9*. 

FERGUSSON'S (James) Palaces of Nineveh and Persepolis 
Restored: an Essay on Ancient Assyrian and Persian Architecture. 
With 46 Woodcuts. 8vo. 18*. 

Handbook of Architecture. Being a 

Concise and Popular Account of the Different Styles f revailing in all 
Ages and Countries in the World. With a Description of the most 
remarkable Buildings. With 850 Illustrations. 2 Vols. Svo. 36*. 

FERRIER'S (T. P.) Caravan Journeys in Persia, Afghanistan, 
Tuvkistan, and Belooohistan, with. Descriptions of Meshed, Herat, Balk, 
and Candahar, and Sketches of the Nomade Tribes ef Central Asia. 
Map. 8vo. 

FEUERBACETS Remarkable German Crimes and Trials. Trans- 
lated from the German by Lady Duff Gobdox. 8vo. 12s. 


FISHER'S (Riv. George) Elements of Geometry, for the Use of 

Schools. Third Edition. 18mo. 3*. 

First Principles of Algebra, for the Use of Schools. 

Third Edition. 18mo. 8a. 

FISHLAKE'S (Rev. J. R.) Translation of Buttman's Lexilogus ; A 
Critical Examination of the Meaning and Etymology of numerous Greek 
Words and Passages, intended principally for Homer and Hesiod. With 
Explanatory Notes and Copious Indexes. Third Edition. 8vo. 14s. 

Translation of Buttman's Catalogue of Irregular 

Greek Verbs; with all the Tenses extant— their Formation, Meaning, 
and Usage. With Explanatory Notes, and accompanied by an Index, 
Second Edition. 8vo. 7s. 6d. 

FLOWER GARDEN (The). An Essay reprinted from the 

" Quarterly Review." Fcap. 8vo. Is. 
FORD'S (Richard) Handbook for Spain, Andalusia, Ronda, Valencia. 

Catalonia, Granada, Gallicia, Arragon, Navarre, &c. Third Edition 
2 Vols. PostSvo. 30*. 

Gatherings from Spain. Post 8vo. 6*. 

FORSYTH'S (William) Hortensius, or the Advocate : an Historical 

Essay on the Office and Duties of an Advocate. Post 8vo. 12*. 

History of Napoleon at St. Helena. From the 

Letters and Journals of Sib Hudson Lowe. Portrait and Maps. 3 Vols. 
8vo. 45*. 

FORTUNE'S (Robert) Narrative of Two Visits to China, between 
the years 1813-52, with full Descriptions of the Culture of the Tea 
Plant. Third Edition. Woodcuts. 2 Vols. Post8vo. 18s. 

FRANCE (History op). From the Conquest by the Gauls to the 
Death of Louis Philippe. By Mrs. Markhah. 40th Thousand. Wood- 
cuts. 12mo. 6s. 

FRENCH (The) in Algiers; The Soldier of the Foreign Legion — 
and the Prisoners of Abd-el-Kadir. Translated by Lady Duff Gordon. 
Post8vo. 2s. 6d. 

GALTON'S (Frakcis) Art of Travel ; or, Hints on the Shifts and 
Contrivances available in Wild Countries. Second Edition. Wood- 
cuts. Post 8vo. 60. 

GEOGRAPHICAL (The) Journal. Published by the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society of London. 8vo. 

GERMANY (History op). From the Invasion by Marius, to the 
present time. On the plan of Mrs. Mabkh am. 6th Tluusand. Woodcuts. 
12mo. 6s. 

GIBBON'S (Edward) Life and Correspondence. By Dean Milman. 
Portrait. 8vo. 9*. 

Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. A New 

Edition. Preceded by the Autobiography of Gibbon. Edited with 
Notes by Dr. Wm. Smith. Portrait and Maps. 8 Vols. 8vo. 60*. 
(Murray's British Classics.) 

GIFFARD'S (Edward) Deeds of Naval Daring; or, Anecdotes of 
the British Navy. 2 Vols. Fcap.8vo. 5*. 

GISBORNE'S (Thomas) Essays on Agriculture. Third Edition. 
Post8vo. 5s. 


GLADSTONE'S (Right Hon. W. E.) Prayers arranged from the 

Liturgy for Family Use. Second Edition. 12mo. 2*.6rf. 

History of the Roman State. Translated from the 

Italian of Luioi Carlo Farixi. 4 Vols. 8vo. 12*. each. 

GOLDSMITH'S (Oliveb) Works. A New Edition. Printed from 
the last editions revised by the Author. Edited by Peter Cunning- 
ham. Vignettes. 4Vols.8vo. 80s. (Murray's British Classics.) 

GLEIG'S (Rev. G. R.) Campaigns of the British Army at Washing- 
ton and New Orleans. Post 8vo. 2*. 6J. 

Story of the Battle of Waterloo. Compiled from Public 

aud Authentic Sources. Post 8vo. 5*. 

Narrative of Sir Robert Sale's Brigade in Afghanistan, 

with an Account of the Seizure and Defence of Jellalabad. Post 8vo. 2a. 6d. 

Life of Robert Lord Clive. Post 8vo. 5*. 

_ Life and Letters of General Sir Thomas Munro. Post 

8vo. 5*. 

GOOCH (Robert, M.D.), On the most Important Diseases peculiar to 

Women. Second Edition. 8vo. 12*. 

GORDON'S (Sir Alex. Duff) Sketches of German Life, and Scenes 
from the War of Liberation. From the German. Post8vo. 6s. 

(Li.nv Duff) Amber- Witch : the most interesting 

Trial for Witchcraft ever known. From the German. Post8vo. 2«. 6d. 

French in Algiers. 1. The Soldier of the Foreign 

Legion. 2. The Prisoners of Abd-el-Kadir. From the French. 
PostSvo. 2*.6d. 

Remarkable German Crimes and Trials. From the 

German. 8vo. 12*. 

GOSPEL STORIES FOR CHILDREN. An Attempt to render the 
Chief Events of the Life of Our Saviour intelligible and profitable. 
Second Edition. 18mo. dff.&f. 

GRANT'S (Asahkl) Nestorians, or the Lost Tribes ; containing 
Evidence of their Identity, their Manners, Customs, and Ceremonies ; 
with Sketches of Travel in Ancient Assyria, Armenia, and Mesopotamia ; 
and Illustrations of Scripture Prophecy. Third Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 6*. 

and Private Correspondence of George Grenville, his Friends and Con- 
temporaries, during a period of 80 years.— Including his Diary of 
Political Evkxts while First Lord of the Treasury. Edited, with 
Notes, by W. J. Smith. 4 Vols. 8vo. 16s. each. 

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR SCHOOLS. Abridged from Matthi*. 
By the Bishop of London. Eighth Edition, revised by Rev. J. Edwards. 
12mo. 3*. 

Accidence for Schools. Abridged from Matthias. 

By the Bishop of London. Fourth Edition, revised by Rev. J. Edwards. 
12mo. 2*. 

GREY'S (Sib George) Polynesian Mythology, and Ancient 
Traditional History of the New Zealand Race. Woodouts. Post 
8vo. 10ff..6<*. 


GBOTE'S (Gaoun) History of Greece. From the Earliest Period 

to the death t>f Alexander the Great. With Maps and an Index. 12 vols. 

8vo. 16*. each. The Work may be had as follows .— 

Vol*. I.— H.— Legendary Greece. Grecian History to the Reign ot 

Peisttttratus at Athens. 
Vols. Ill— IV.— History of Early Athens, and the Legi slatfen of Solon. 

Grecian Colonies. View of the Contemporary Nations surrounding 

Greece. Grecian History down to the first Persian Invasion, and the 

Battle of Marathon. 
Vols. V.— VI.— Persian War and Invasion of Greece hy Xerxes. Period 

between the Persian and the Peloponnesian Wars. Peloponnesian 

War down to the Expedition of the Athenians against Syracuse. 
Vols. VIL— VIII— The Peace of Nikias down to the Battle of Knidus. 

Socrates and the Sophists. 
Vols. IX.— XI.— From the Restoration of the Democracy at Athens down 

to the Death of Philip of Macedon (ba 403-358). 
Vol. XII.— The end of the Reign of Alexander the Great. Review of 

Plato and Aristotle. 

OROSVENOR'S (Lord Robert) Leave* from my Journal during 

the Summer of 1851. Second Edition. Plates. Post 8vo. 8*. 6d. 

GTJIZOT (M.) on the Causes of the Success of the English 

Revolution of 1640-1688. 8vo. 6s. ; or Cheap Edition, 12mo, 1*. 

Democracy in France. Sixth Edition. 8m 8*. 0cf. 

OURWOOD'S (Col.) Despatches of the Duke of Wellington during 
his various Campaigns. Compiled from Official and Authentic Docu- 
ments. New, enlarged, and complete Edition. 8 vols. 8vo. 21*. each. 

— Selections from the "Wellington Despatches, 

and General Orders. New Edition. 8vo. 18*. 

— Speeches in Parliament of the Duke of 

Wellington. 2 Vols. 8vo. 48a. 
GUSTAVUS VASA (History of), King of Sweden. With Extracts 

from his Correspondence. Portrait. 8vo. 10*. 64. 
H ALLAH'S (Henry) Constitutional History of England, from the 

Accession of Henry the Seventh to the Death of George the Second. 

Seventh Edition, 3 Vols. 8vo. 30*. 

— — History of Europe during the Middle Ages. Tenth 

Edition. 3 Vols. 8vo. 30*. 
- — — Introduction to the Literary History of Europe, during 
the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries. Fourth Edition. 9 Vols. 8vo. 36s. 

Literary Essays and Characters. Selected from the 

last work. Fcap.8vo. 2». 

_ Historical Works. Popular Edition. 10 Vols. Post 

8vo. 6s. each. 

HAMILTON'S (Walter) Hindostan, Geographically, Statistically, 

and Historically. Map. 2 Vols. 4to. 94s. 6a\ 

— (W. J.) Researches in Asia Minor, Pontes, and 

Armenia ; with some Account of the Antiquities and Geology of those 
Countries. Plates. 2 Vols. 8vo. 88*. 

HAMPDEN'S (Bishop) Essay on the Philosophical Evidence of 
Christianity, or the Credibility obtained to a Scripture Revelation 
from its Coincidence with the Facts of Nature. 8vo. 9*. 6d. 

HARCOURT'8 (Edwabd Verio*) Sketch of Madeira; with Map 

aadPUtts. PeatSro. fe.&fc 
HART'S ARMY LIST. (Published Quarterly and AnnvaUy.) 8to. 


HAT'S (J. H. Depmmo*b) Western BarhaTy, its wild Tribes and 
savage Animals. Poatgvo. 8*. 64. 

HAND-BOOK OP TRAVEL-TALK; or. Conversations in 
English, German, French, and Italian. lSmo* g*.6«*. 

NORTH GERMANY— Hol*akb, Belgium, and 

the Rhine to Switzerland. Map. Post8vo. 9«. 

SOUTH GERMANY— Bavaria, Austria, Salzberg, 

the Austrian and Bavarian Alps, the Tyrol, and the Danube, from Ulm 
to the Black Sea. Map. Post 8vo. 9s. 

— SWITZERLAND— the Alps *f Savoy, and Piedmont. 

Maps. "Post 8vo. 7*. W. 

PAINTING— the. German, Dutch, Spanish, and 

French Schools. From the German of Kuoleb. Edited by Sir 
Edmund Head. Woodcuts. 2 Vols. Post8vo. 

FRANCE-T-Normandy, Brittany, the French 

Alps, the Rivers Loire, Seine, Rhone, and Garonne, Dauphlne, Provence, 
and the Pyrenees. Maps. Post 6vo. 9*. 

SPAIN — Andalusia, Ronda, Granada, Valencia, 

Catalonia, Gallicia, Arragon, and Navarre. Maps. 3 Vols. Post 8vo. 30s. 
PORTUGAL, LISBON, &c Map. Post 8vo. 9«. 

— NORTH ITALY— Florence, Sardinia, Genoa, the 
Riviera, Venice, Lombardy, and Tuscany. Map* Post 8v0 - 2 Vols. 12s. 
CENTRAL ITALY— South Tuscakt and the 

Papal States. Map. PostSvo. 7*. 

8vo. 7*. 

SOUTH ITALY— Naples, Pompeii, Hercnlaneum, 

Vesuvius^ &c. Map. Post8vo. 10*. 

PAINTING— the Italian Schools. From the Ger» 

man of Kugler. Edited by Sir Charles Eabtlakb. Woodcuts. 2 
Vols. PostSvo. 30*. 


Dictionary of Italian Painters. Edited by Ralph Wobnux. With, 
a Chart. PostSvo. 6#.6d. 

GREECE— the Ionian Islands, Albania, Thessaly, 
and Macedonia. Maps. Post8vo. 15*. 

TURKEY — Malta, Asia Minor, Cowstaktiiiople, 

Armenia, Mesopotamia, &c. Maps. Post8vo. 10*. 

EGYPT— Thebes, the Nile, Alexandria, Cairo, 

the Pyramids, Mount Sinai, Ac Map. Post 8vo. 16s. 

DENMARK— NonwAr and SvDn. Maps. Post 

8vo. 12*. 

— RlTSSIA— Thb Baltic afd Fivlakp. Maps. Post 

8vo.. 12*. 

DEVON AND CORNWALL. Maps. Post 8vo. 6*. 

LONDON, Past am> Pmskht. Being an Alpha- 
betical Account of all the Antiquities, CurioaitiML Cfeuehta, Works 
of Art, Places, and Streets connected with .Interesting and Historical 
Associations. Post8vo. 16*. 


HAND-BOOK OF MODERN LONDON. A Guide to all objects 
of interest in the Metropolis. Map. 16mo. 5*. 

ENVIRONS OF LONDON. Including a Circle of 

30 Miles round St. Paul's. Maps. Post8vo. {Nearly ready.) 

BRITISH MUSEUM ; its Ahtiquities ahd Sculp- 

ture. 300 Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 7s. 6d. 

PICTURE GALLERIES in and near London. 

With Critical Notices. PostSvo. 10*. 

WESTMINSTER ABBEY— its Art, Architecture, 

and Associations. Woodcuts. 16mo. Is. 

PARIS. Post8vo. 

INDIA. Post 8vo. 

CHRONOLOGY & HISTORY, Alphabetically ar- 
ranged. 8vo. (Nearly Beady.) 

(OFFICIAL). Giving an Historical Account of the 

Duties attached to the various Civil and Ecclesiastical Departments of 
the Government Post 8vo. 6*. 

FAMILIAR QUOTATIONS. Chiefly from English 

Authors. A New Edition, with an Index. Fcap. 8vo. 5s. 

... ARCHITECTURE. Being a Concise and Popular 

Account of the Different Styles prevailing in all Ares and Countries 
By Jambs Fkbgusson. With 850 Illustrations. 2 Vols. 8vo. 36s. 

_ - — - CATHEDRALS OF ENGLAND. With Plates. 

Post 8vo. In Preparation. 


Renaissance. By M. Jules Labarte. With 200 Illustrations. 8vo. 18.s. 

HEAD'S (Sir Francis) Rough Notes of some Rapid Journeys across 
the Pampas and over the Andes. Post 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

Bubbles from the Brunnen of Nassau. By an Old Mak. 

Sixth Edition. 16mo. 6*. 

Emigrant. Sixth Edition. Fcap. 8to. 2*. 6d. 

Stokers and Pokers, or the London and North- Western 

Railway. PostSvo. 2s. 6d. 

Defenceless State of Great Britain. Contents — 1. Mili- 
tary Warfare. 2. Naval Warfare. 3. The Invasion of England. 4. The 
Capture of London by a French Army. 5. The Treatment of Women 
in War. . 6. K[ow to Defend Great Britain. Post 8vo. 12*. 

Sketches of Paris, or Faggot of French Sticks. 

New Edition. 2 Vols. Post8vo. 12*. 

Fortnight in Ireland. Second Edition. Map. 8vo. 12*. 

Sir Georgb) Forest Scenes and Incidents in Canada. 

Second Edition. Post8vo. 10*. 

— — Home Tour through the Manufacturing Districts of 
Bngland, Scotland, and Ireland, including the Channel Islands, and the 
Isle of Han. Third Edition. 2 Vols. PostSro. 12*. 


HEAD'S (Sib Edmund) Handbook of Painting — the German, 
Dutch, Spanish, and French Schools. Partly from the German of 
Kuolbb. With Illustrations. 2 Vols. Post Svo. 

HEBER'S (Bishop) Parish Sermons ; on the Lessons, the Gospel, 
or the Epistle, for every Sunday in the Year, and for Week-day Festivals. 
Sixth Edition. 2 Vols. Post Svo. 16*. 

9*. to. 

Sermons Preached in England. Second Edition. 8vo. 

Hymns written and adapted for the weekly Church 

Service of the Year. Twelfth Edition. 16mo. 2s. 

7*. 6d. 

Poetical Works. Fifth Edition. Portrait Fcap. 8vo. 

Journey through the Upper Provinces of India, From 

Calcutta to Bombay, with a Journey to Madras and the Southern Pro- 
vinces. 2 Vote. Post 8vo. 10*. 

HEIRESS (The) in Her Minority ; or, The Progress of Character. 
By the Author of " Bertha's Journal." 2 Vols. 12mo. 

HERODOTUS. A New English Version. Translated from the 
Textof Gaisford, and Edited with Notes, illustrating the History and 
Geography of Herodotus, from the most recent sources of information. 
By Rev. G. Rawlinson, Colonel RAWLiNSON,and Sib J. G. Wilkinson. 
4 Vols. 8vo. In Preparation. 

HERSCHEL'S (Sir J. W. F.) Manual of Scientific Enquiry, for the 
Use of Travellers. By various Writers. Second Edition. Post Svo. 10s. 6d. 

HER VEY'S (Lord) Memoirs of the Reign of George the Second, 
from his Accession to the Death of Queen Caroline. Edited, with Notes, 
by Right Hon. J. W. Cbokeb. Second and Cheaper Edition. Portrait. 
2Vols.8vo. 21a. 

HICKMAN'S (Wm.) Treatise on the Law and Practice of Naval 
Courts Martial. 8vo. 10*. Gd\ 

HILL (Frederic) On Crime : its Amount, Causes, and Remedies. 

8vo. 12*. 

HILLARD'S (G. S.) Six Months in Italy. 2 Vols. Post 8vo. 16*. 

of Lancaster. With an Introductory View of the Early Reformation. 
Second Edition. 8vo. 15*. 

the late War: with Sketches of Nelson, Wellington, 

and Napoleon. By J. G. Lookhabt. 18mo. 2«.6& 

HOLLAND'S (Rev. W. B.) Psalms and Hymns, selected and 

adapted to the various Solemnities of the Church. Third Edition, 24mo. 
Is. 3d. 

HOLLWAY'S (J. G.) Month in Norway. Fcap. 8vo. 2s. 

HONEY BEE (The). An Essay. Reprinted from the "Quar- 
terly Review." Fcap.8vo. 1*. 


16 fiBT'W-WOUffft 

HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. Complete in 76 Parts, 
Post Stp, 2*. dd. each, or bound in 87 Volumes, doth, 


THE BIBLB IN SPAIN. By Geobok Borrow. 

JOURNALS IN INDIA. By Bishop Ukbke. 

TRAVELS IN THE HOLY LAND. By Captaixs Irby and Mangles. 

THS SIEGE OF GIBRALTAR. By John Dbixkwatjsb. 



THE AMBER-WITCH. By Lady Duff Gordon. 


NEW SOUTH WALES, By Mas. Meredith. 




SKETCHES OF PERSIA. By Sib John Malcolm. 

THE FRENCH IN ALGIERS. By Lady Duff Gordon. 

BBACEBRIDGE HALL. By Washington Irving. 




GIPSIES OF SPAIN. By George Borrow. 

THE MARQUESAS. By Hermann Melville, 





HIGHLAND SPORTS. By Chables St. John. 








THE WAYSIDE CROSS. By Capt. Milman. 




LIFE OF LORD CLIVE. By Rev. G. R, Glbig. 



TALES OF A TRAVELLER. By Washington Irving. 
, SHORT LIVES OF THE, POETS. Bf.Thoilas.Campbeia. 







LIFE OF OLIVER GOLDSMITH. By Washington Irving. ' 


HOOK'S (Rbv. Da.) Church Dictionary. Seventh Edition. 8m 16*. 

- Discourses on the Religious Controversies of the Day. 

8to. 9*. 

Advice to the Roman Catholics. By Dean Comber. A 

N*w Edition. With Note*. Foap.£vo. 3s. 

(TttKODOBB) Life. An Essay. Reprinted from the "Quarterly 

Review." Fcap.Svo. U. 

HOOKER'S (Dr. J. D.) Himalayan Journals ; or, Notes of an Oriental 

Naturalist in Bengal, the Sikkim 'and Nepal Himalayas, the Khasia 
•Mountains, Ac Second BdMort. Weodeuts.. 2 vote. Post8ro. 18*. 

HOOPER'S (Lieut.) Ten Months among the Tents of the Tuski ; 

with Incidents of an Arctic Boat Expedition in Search of Sir John 
Franklin. By Lieut. Hooper, R.N. Plates 8vo. 14*. 

HORACE (Works of). Edited by Dean Milman. New Edition. 
With 300 Woodcuts. Crown 8ro. 21*. 

- (Life of). By Dean Milman. New Edition* Woodenta> 

and coloured Borders. 8vo. 9s. 

HORNER'S (Francis) Memoirs and Letters. By Ips Brother^ 

Second BSitim. Portrait. 2Vols. 8vo. 80*. 

HOSPITALS AND SISTERHOODS. Second Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 


HOITSTOTTN'S (Mrs.) Yacht Voyage to Texas and' the Gulf of 
Mexico. Plates. 2 Vols. PostSvo. 21*. 

HUMBOLDT'S (Albx.) Cosmos-; or, a Physical Description of the 

World. Translated by Col. and Mrs. Sabink. Seventh B&Hion. 8 Vols. 
PostSvo. 10s. Gd. 

- - Aspects of Nature in different Lands and in 

different Climates. Translated by Col. and Mas. Sabotb. 2 Tola. 
Post8vo. 6s. • ... 

HUTCHINSON (Colonel) ow Dog-Breakings the most expe- 
ditious, certain, and easy Method, whether great Exce l le nc e or only 
Mediocrity be required. Third Edition. Revised and enlarged. Woodcuts. 

INKERSLETS {Thos.) Gothic Architecture in France ; Being an 
Inquiry into the Chronological Succession of the Romanesque and 
Pointed Styles; with Netioes of some of the principal Buildings, and 
an Index. 8vo. 12*. 

IRBY AND MANGLES' Travels in Egypt, Nubia, Syria, and 
the Holy- Land, including a Journey round the Dead Sea, and through 
the Comtry east of the Jordan. Post8vo. 2*. erf. 

JAMES* (Rev. Thomas) Fables of Msop. A New. Yersion, chiefly 
from the Original Greek. With 100 Original Designs, by John 
Tsnriax. Twep^JirstiEdHion. Fovtdret 2*.6aV 

JAMESON'S (Mbst) Handbook to the Picture Galleries in and 
near London. With Historical, Bfc>gr*phtcal, and Critical Notices. 
PostSvo. Second Edition. 1Q*. 

JAPAN AND THE JAPANESE. Described from the Accounts 
- of Recent Dutch Travellers. New Edition. Post8vo. 6*. 

JEBYIS ; a<€UEr.)Mft«Balo< Opecaamiw in ike Field, far the Cm of 
OfQoBfa. PocttSM. fee* 

o 2 


JESSE'S (Edward) Visit* to Spots of Interest in the Vicinity of 
Windsor and Eton. Woodcut*. PostSvo. 12*. 

Scenes and Occupations of Country Life. With Recol- 
lections of Natural History. Third Edition. Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. 6s. 

Gleanings in Natural History. With Anecdotes of the 

Sagacity and Instinct of Animals. Eighth Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 6*. 

JOCELYN'S (Lord) Six Months with the Chinese Expedition ; or, 
Leaves from a Soldier's Note-Book. Seventh Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 69.64. 

JOHNSON'S (Dr. Samuel) Life : By James Boswell. Including 
the Tour to the Hebrides, with Notes by Sib W. Scott. Edited by 
the Right Hon. Johk Wilsoh Cbokkb. Third Edition. 1 Vol. 
Portraits. Royal Svo. 15*. 

_ Lives of the most eminent English 

Poets. A New Edition. Edited and annotated. By Peter Cuxxixghax 
3 vols. 8vo. 22$. Qd. (Murray's British Classics.) 

JOHNSTON'S (Wm.) England as it is : Social, Political, and 
Industrial, in the Middle of the 19th Century. 2 Vols. Post8vo. 18«. 

JOUKNAL OP A NATURALIST. Fourth Edition. Woodcuts, 
Post8vo. 9a. W. 

JOWETT'S (Rev. B.) Commentary on St Paul's Epistles to the 
Thessalonians, GalatUns, and Romans. With Notes and Dissertations. 
Vols. 8vo. 30*. 

KEN'S (Bishop) Life. By A Layman. Second Edition. Portrait. 
2 Vols. 8vo. 18*. 

■ Exposition of the Apostles* Creed. Extracted from his 

"Practice of Divine Love." New Edition. Fcap. l*.6d. 

Approach to the Holy Altar. Extracted from his * Manual 

of Prayer" and " Practioe of Divine Love." New Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 

KINO EDWARD VIth's Latin Grammar; or, an Introduction 
to the Latin Tongue, for the Use of Schools. Tenth MlUion. 12mo. Bs. 6rf. 

First Latin Book ; or, the Accidence, 

Syntax and Prosody, with an English Translation for the Use of Junior 
Classes. Second Edition. 12mo. 2s. 

KINNEAR'S (John G.) Cairo, Petra, and Damascus, described 
from Notes made during a Tour in those Countries : with Remarks on 
the Government of Mehemet AIL and on the present prospects ef Syria. 
Post 8ro. 9s. 64. 

KNIGHT'S (Charles) Knowledge is Power: a View of the 
Productive forces of Modern Society, and the results of Labour, Capital, 
and Skill. Woodcuts. Fcap. Svo. 7s.6d. 

Once upon a Time. 2 Vols. Fcap. 8vo. 10*. 

-'- — — Old Printer and Modern Press. Woodcuts. Fcap.8yo. 5s. 

KOCH'S (Professor) Crimea and .Odessa: their Climate and Re- 
sources, described from fferaonal knowledge. Jtafc. Post8vo. 10*. 64. 


KUGLER'S (Br. Franz) Handbook to the History of Painting 
(the Italian Schools). Translated from the German. Edited, with 
Motes, by Sib Chablks Eastlakb. Third Edition. With Woodcuts 
from the Old Masters. 2 Vols. Post8vo. 30a. 

(the German, Dutch, Spanish, 

and French Schools). Partly Translated from the German. Edited, 
with Motes, by Sir Edmund Hbad, Bart. With Woodcuts from the Old 
Masters. 2 vols. Post8vo. 24*. 

LABARTE'S (M. Jules) Handbook of the Arts of the Middle Ages 
and Renaissance. With 200 Woodcuts. 8vo. 18*. 

LABORDE'S (Leok De) Journey through Arabia Petraea, to Mount 
Sinai, and the Excavated Oity of Petraa, — the Edom of the Prophecies. 
Second Edition. With Plates. 8vo. 18*. 

LAMBERT'S (Miss) Church Needlework. With Practical Remarks 
on its Preparation and Arrangement. Plates. Post 8vo. 9*. 6d. 

. My Knitting Book. Woodcuts. Two Parts. 16mo. 8*. 

- My Crochet Sampler. Woodcuts. Two Parts. 16mo. is. 

Hints on Decorative Needlework. 16mo. 1*. 6d. 

LANE'S (E. W.) Arabian Nights. Translated, with Explanatory 
Notes. With Woodcuts. KoyaI8vo. 21*. 

LATIN GRAMMAR (Kisio Edward the VIth's.) For the TXso 

of Schools. Tenth Edition. 12mo. 3*.6d. 

First Book (King Edward VI.); or, the Accidence, 

Syntax, and Prosody, with English Translation for Junior Classes. 
Second Edition, limo. 2*. 

LA YARD'S (A. H.) Nineveh and its Remains. Being a Nar- 
rative of Researches and Discoveries amidst the Ruins of Assyria. 
With an Account of the Chaldean Christians of Kurdistan ; the Yezedis, 
or Devil-worshippers; and an Enquiry into the Manners and Arts of 
the Ancient Assyrians. Siztt Edition. Plates and Woodcuts. 2 Vols. 
8vo. 36s. 

Nineveh and Babylon ; being the Result 

of a Second Expedition to Assyria. Fourteenth Thousand. Plates. 
8vo. 21*. Or Fine Paper, 2 Vols. 8vo. 80s. 

Popular Account of Nineveh. 15th Edition. With 

Woodcuts. Post8vo. 65. 

Monuments of Nineveh. First and Second Series. 

Illustrated by One Hundred and Seventy Engravings. 2 Vols. Imperial 
Folio, 10?. 10s. each. 

LEAKE'S (Col. W. Martin) Topography of Athens, with Remarks 
on its Antiquities; to which is added, the Demi of Attica. Second 
Edition. Plates. 2Vols.8vo. 20s. 

Travels in Northern Greece. Maps, i Vols. 8vo. 60*. 

Greece at the End of Twenty-three Years* Protection. 

8vo. ed. 

Peloponnesiaca : A Supplement to Travels in the Morea. 

8vo. 16s. 

Thoughts on the Degradation of Science in England. 

8ro 8s. 6d. 

22 IA6T OF WQMCfl 

LESLIE'S (a R.) Handbook for Young Putter* WHfc Jlhsttr* 

tiotm. Post8vo. lfa.64. 

Lady. PostSvo. 2*. 61 
Madras ; or, First Impressions of Life and 

Manners In India. By a Lady. Post8vo. 2*. 64. 

Sierra Leone, written to Friends at Home, 

By a Lads. Edited by Mrs. Norton. PostSvo. 6c 

LEWIS' (G. Cornbwaljl) Essay on the Government of Dependencies. 

8vo. 12a. 

- Glossary of Provincial Words used in Herefordshire and 
some of the adjoining Counties, lima, is. 64. 

- Essay on the Origin and Formation of the Romance; 

Languages. Second Edition. 8vo. 12*. 

- (Lady Thbresa) Friends and Contemporaries of the 
Lord Chancellor Clarendon, illustrative of Portraits in his Gallery. 
With an Introduction, containing a Descriptive Catalogue of the Pictures, 
and an Account of the Origin of the Collection. Portraits. 8 Vols. 
8vo. 42*. 

(M. G.) Journal of a Residence among the Negroes in the 

West Indies. Post8vo. 2s. 6d. 

LEXINGTON (The) PAPERS; or, Some Account of the Courts 
of London and Vienna at the end of the 17th Century. Extracted from 
Official and Private Correspondence, M84-1696. Edited by Hon. H. 

Mawnkrb Sutton. 8vo. 14*. 

LIDDELL'S (Dsav) History of Rome. From the Earliest Times 

to the Establishment of the Empire, fi Vols. 6vo. fBs. Also a School 
Edition, 12mo. 

LINDSAY'S (Loan) Sketches of the History of Christian Art. 
3Vola,6vo. 81s. 6cL 

Lives of the Lindsays ; or, a Memoir of the Houses 

of Crawford and Balcarres. To which are added, Extracts from the 

Official Correspondence of Alexander, sixth Earl of Balcarres, during 
the Maroon War; together with Personal Narratives, by his Brothers, 
the Hon. Robert, Colin, James, John, and Hugh Lindsay; and by bia 

the Maroon War; together with Personal Narratives, by his Brothers, 
the Hon. Robert, Colin, James, John, and Hu " " ' . . . 

Sister, Lady Anne Barnard. 8 Vols. 8vo. 42*. 

r Report of the Claim of James, Earl of Crawfurd and 

Balcarres, to the Original Dukedom of. Montrose, created in 1488. 
Folio. 16*. 

(Rev. Henry) Practical Lectures on the Historical 

Books of the Old Testament. 2 Vols. 16mo. 10«. 


CaiAjOOTT. Eighteenth Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 

LIYONIAN TALES.— the Disponent.— The Wolves.— The Jewess, 
By the Author of " Letters from the Baltic" Post 6vo. . 2*. 6d. 

LOCKHART'S (J. G.) Ancient Spanish Ballads. Historical and 
Romantic. Translated, with Motes. New Edition, with Portrait, 
Illuminated Titles, Borders, &c. 4to. 42s. Or, Popular Edition, Post 
8vo. 2s. 6d. 

- Life of Robert Burns. Fifth Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 3s. 

History of. the Late War:: wish Sketches of Nelson, 

Wellington, and Napoleon. 18mo. 2s. d. 


LOUDON'S (Mrs-) Ladies' Gardener; or, Instructions in Gardening. 
With Directions for Every Month in the Year, and a Calendar ot' 
Operations. Eighth Edition, Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. 5s. 

— L : . Modern Botany for Ladies; or, a Popular Introduction 
to the Natural System of Plants. Second Edition. Woodcuts. Foap.8vo.5tf. 

LOWE'S (Sir Hudson) Letters ^and Journals, daring the Captivity 
of Napoleon at St. Helena. By William Fo&svth. Portrait. 8 Vols. 
8vo. 45*. 

L YELL'S (Sib Charles) Principles of .Geology; or, the Modern 
Changes of the Earth and its Inhabitants considered as illustrative of 
Geology. Xinth Edition. Woodcuts. 8vo. 18*. 

• Manual of Elementary Geology ; or, the Ancient Changes 

of the Earth and its Inhabitants illustrated by its Geological Monuments. 
fifth Edition. WdOdoate. 8vo. 

— Travels in North America, T841-2; wifh Observations on 

the United States, Canada, and Nova Scotia. Second Edition. Plates. 
2 Vols. PostSvo. 12*. 

Second Visit to the United States of North America, 

1845-6. Third Edition. 2 Vote. Post 8vo. 12*. 

MAHON'S (Lord) History of England, from the Peace of Utrecht 
to the Peace of Versailles, 1718— 83. Fourth Edition. 7 Vols. 8vo. 93*. 
— -. — Popular Edition. 7 Vols. Post 8vo. 42*. 

- « Forty-Five ;" * Narrative of the Rebellion in Scot- 
land. Post8vo. 80. 
History of the War of the Succession in Spain. Second 

Edition. Map. 8vo. 16s. 

■ Spain under Charles the Second ; or, Extracts from the 

Correspondence of the Hon. Alexander Stanhope. British Minister at 
Madrid frc - — ' - " ' " 

Madrid from 1690 to 1700. Second Edition. Post 8vo. 6s. 6d. 

— Life of Louis Prince of Oonde*, surnamed the Great. 

Post8vo. 5*. 

Life of BeKsarius. Second Edition. Post 8vo. 10*. 6c7. 

Historical and Critical Essays. PostSvo. 59. 

Story of Joan of Arc. Pcap. 8vo. 1*. 

M'CULLOCHS (J. R.) Collected Edition of Rioardo's PoMtical 

Works. With Notes and Memoir. Second Edition. 8vo. 16*. 

MALCOLM'S (Sir John) Sketches of Persia. Third Edition. 
PostSvo. 6*. 

MANTELL'S (Gideon A.) Thoughts on Animalcules ; or, the 
Invisible World, as revealed by the Microscope. Second Edition. Plates. 
16mo. 6s. 

MANUAL OF SCIENTIFIC ENQUIRY, Prepared fbr the Use of 
Officers and Travellers in general. By various Writers. Edited "bySttt 
J. Herschel, Bart. Second Edition. Maps. Post 8vo. 10«. Qd. (Pub- 
lished by order of the Lords of the Admiralty.) 

MARKHAM'S (Mrs.) History of England. From the Firet Inva- 
sion by the Romans, down to the fourteenth year of Queen Victoria's 
Reign. 88th Edition. Woodcuts. 12mo. 6s. 

History of France. From the Cone^test by the Gauls, 

to the Death of Louis -Philippe, ^h Edition. Woodcuts. I2mo. 6s. 


MARK HAM'S History of Germany. From the Invasion by Marios, 
to the present time. 6th Edition. Woodcuts, limo. 6*. 

History of Greece. With Chapters on the Literature, 

Art, and Domestic Manners of the Greeks. By Dr. Wm. Smith. 
Seventh Edition. Woodcuts. 12mo. 7».6d. 

History of Borne, from the Earliest Times to the 

Establishment of the Empire. By Deajt Liddkll. Woodcuts. 12mo. 

Sermons for Children. Second Edition. Fcap.8vo. 3*. 

MARKLAND'S (J. H.) Remarks on English Churches, and Sepul- 
chral Memorials. Fourth Edition. Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. 6«.6rf. 
Reverence due to Holy Places. Third Edition* 

Fcap. 8vo. 2*. 

MARRY AT'S (Joseph) History of Pottery and Porcelain, in the 
15th, 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries. With a Description of the Manu- 
facture, a Glossary, and a List of Monograms. Second Edition. Revised. 
With Coloured Plates and Woodcuts. 8vo. 

MATTHIAS'S (Augustus) Greek Grammar for Schools. Abridged 
from the Larger Grammar. By Blomfield. 8th Edition. Revised by 
Edwards. 12mo. 3s. 

— Greek Accidence for Schools. Abridged by 
Blomfield. Fourth Edition, revised hy Edwards. 12mo. 2s. 

M ATJREI/S (Jules) Essay on the Character, Actions, and Writings 
of the Duke of Wellington. Second Edition. Fcap. 8vo. U.6d. 

MAWE'S (H. L.) Journal of a Passage from the Pacific to the 
Atlantic, crossing the Andes in the Northern Provinces of Peru, and 
descending the great River Maranon. 8vo. 12s. 

MAXIMS AND HINTS for an Angler, and the Miseries of 
Fishing. By Richard Pknn. Second Edition. Woodcuts. 12mo. fa. 

MAYO'S (D».) Pathology of the Human Mind. Fcap. 8vo. 5s. 6d. 

MELVILLE'S (Hermann) Typee and Omoo; or, Adventures 
amongst the Marquesas and South Seas. 2 Vols. Post 8vo. 

MENDELSSOHN'S (Felix Bartholdt) Life. By Jules Benedict, 

8vo. 2a. 6d 

MERRIFIELD (Mrs.) on the Arts of Painting in Oil, Miniature, 
Mosaic, and Glass ; Gilding, Dyeing, and the Preparation of Colours 
and Artificial Gems, described in several old Manuscripts. 2 Vols. 8vo. 

MEREDITH'S (Mrs. Charles) Notes and Sketches of New South 
Wales, during a Residence from 1839 to 1844. Post 8vo. 2s. 64. 

Tasmania, during a Residence of Nine Years. With 

Illustrations. 2 Vols. Post8vo. 18*. 

MILLS (Arthur) On Colonial Constitutions. An Outline of the 
History of British Dependencies. Map. 8vo. 

MITCHELL'S (Thomas) Plays of Aristophanes. With English 
Notes. 8vo.—l. CLOUDS, 10a.— 2. WASPS, 10*.— 3. FROGS, 15*. 

MODERN DOMESTIC COOKERY. Founded on Principles of 
Economy and Practical Knowledge, and adapted for Private Families, 
New Edition. Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. 6*. 


MILMAN'S (Dkak) History of Christianity, from the Birth of 
Christ to the Extinction of Paganism in the Roman Empire. 3 Vols. 
8vo. 36*. 

History of Latin Christianity ; including that of the 

Popes to the Pontificate of Nicholas V. 6 Vols. 8vo. 72*. 

Character and Conduct of the Apostles considered as 

an Evidence of Christianity. 8vo. 10s. 6d. 
Life and Correspondence of Edward Gibbon. Portrait. 

8vo. 9*. 
Life and Works of Horace. With 300 Woodcuts. 

Xeto Edition. 2 Vols. Crown 8vo. 30*. 

Poetical Works. Plates. 8 Vols. Fcap. 8vo. 18*. 

._ . Pall of Jerusalem. Fcap. 8vo. 1*. 

(Capt. E. A.) Wayside Cross ; or, the Raid of Gomez. 

A Tale of the Carlist War. Post8vo. 2s. 6d. 


of "Sunlight through the Mist." Woodcuts. 16mo. 4*. 

MOLTKE'S (Baron) Russian Campaigns on the Danube and the 

Passage of the Balkan, 1828— 9. Plans. 8vo. 14*. 

MOORE'S (Thomas) Life and Letters of Lord Byron. Plates. 

6 Vols. Fcap. 8vo. 18a.; or, One Volume, Royal 8vo. 12*. 
MOZLEY'S (Rev. J. B.) Treatise on the Augustinian Doctrine of 

Predestination. 8vo. 14s. 

Primitive Doctrine of Baptismal Regeneration. 8vo. 

MUCK MANUAL (The)for the Use of Farmers. A Practical Treatise 
on the Chemical Properties, Management, and Application of Manures. 
Frederick Falkneb. Second Edition. Fcap. 8ro. 6s. 

MUNDY'S (Capt. Rodney) Events in Borneo, including the Occu- 
pation of Lahnan and Visit to the Celebes. Plates. 2 Vols. 8vo. 32*. 

MUNRO'S (General Sir Thomas) Life and Letters. By the Rev. 
G. R. Glbio. Pelt 8vo. 6s. 

MURCHISON'S (Sir Roderick) Russia in Europe and the Ural 
Mountains; Geologically Illustrated. With Coloured Maps, Plates, 
Sections, &c. 2 Vols. Royal 4to. 61. 8s. 

Siluria ; or, a History of the Oldest Rocks con- 
taining Organic Remains. With Map' and Plates. 8ro. 30*. 

MURRAY'S (Capt. A.) Naval Life and Services of Admiral Sir 

Philip Durham. 8vo. 6*. 6d. 

MURRAY'S RAILWAY READING. Published occasionally; 

varying in size and price, and suited for all classes of Readers. 

[The following art published:] 

Wbllinoton. Br Lord Ellbsxbbb. Gd. 


Essays fbom "Tbb Timbs." 3 Vols. 8». 

Music ak» Drbss. Is. 

La yard's Popular Account or Nimbtbh. 

Milxan's Fall or Jbbuhalbm. Is. 
Mahon's "Fobty-Fiys.'* 

Mabon's Joan or Arc. Is. 
Hnad's Emiobant. 2s. M. 
Nix bob on *■■ Road. Is. 
Wilkinson's Ancibnt Eoyptxans. 12s. 
Crokbb on tbb Guillotinb. Is. 
Hollway's Nobwat. 2s. 
Maobbl's Wbllinoton. U.6d. 
Caxpbbll's Lira or Bacon. 2*. 

Lifb or Thbodobb Hook. It. j Thb Flows b Gabdbn. Is. 

Dbbps or Natal Dabino. 2 Vols. it. ' Locbbabt's Sfahisn Ballads. tt.Od. 

Tbb Honby Bbb. Is. Lucas on Histoby. 64. 

Jambs' flop's Fa blbs. 2s. 64. Bbautibs or Bybon. 3s. 

Nimbod on tbb Tubb. Is. 6d. . Taylob's Notrs rsoK Lifb. 2s. 

Oliphamt** Nbpaul. 2s. 6*?. Rxjbctbb Abdrbssbs. Is. 

Art or Dinino. Js.64. ' Fbnm's Hints on Anolinq. la. 

Hall ax's Litbbaby Essays. 2s. 

26 UST OF *W0R£S 

MUSIC AND DRESS. Two Essays, by a Lady. Reprinted from 

the" Quarterly Review." Feap.8vo. 1«. 
NAUTICAL ALMANACK (The). (Published by Order 0/ the 

L*rd* Commsmoners of the jUmimlty.) Royal Svo. As. 6o*. 

NAPIER'S (Str Wic.) English Battles and Sieges of the Peninsular 
War. With Portrait. PostSvo. l<te.6rf. 

NAYT LIST (The Royal). (PuUuhtd Quarterly, by AuUiority.) 

12mo. 2s. 6d. 

NEWBOLD'S (Lottr*.) Straits of Malacca, Penang, And Singapore. 

2Vols.8vo. 26*. 

NEWDEGATE*S (C. N.) Customs* Tariffs of all Nations; collected 

and arranged up to the year 18*5. sto. 40s. 
NICHOLLS' (Sin G*©w*) History <fi the English Poor Law : in 

connection with the Condition at the People. 2 Vols. 8*o. 48*. 

NIMROD On the Chace— The Turf^and The Boad. Reprinted 
from the "Qoarterly Review." Woodcuts. Fcap.*8vo. 4to.6«\ 

NORTON'S (Hon. €*rot,ii*b) Letters from Sierra Leone, to 'Friends 

at Home. By a Lady. Bdited by Mn. Nobton. Post^vo. «*. 

O'BTRNE'S (W. R.) Naval Biographical Dictionary, comprising 
the Life and Services of every Living Officer in H. H. Nwvy, from the 
Bank of Admiral to that of Lieutenant Compiled from Authentic and 
Family Documents. Royal 8vo 42*. 

O'CONNOR'S (R.) Field Sports of France ; or, Hunting, Shooting, 
and Fishing on the Continent Woodcuts. 12mo. 7*. 6a*. 

OLIPHANVS (Laubbhoe) Journey to Katmandu, with Visit to 
the Camp of the Nepaulese Ambassador. Fcap. 8vo. Zs.Qd. 

GXENHAM'S (Rsv. W.) English Notes for Latin Elegiacs 7 designed 
for earry Proficients in the Art of Latin Versification, with Prefatory 
Rules of Composition in Elegiac Metre. Second Edition. 12mo. 4t. 

PAGET'S (John) Hungary and Transylvania, With Remarks on 

their Condition, Social, Political, and Economical. Third and Cheaper 
Edition. Woodcuts. 2 Vols. 8vo. 18*. 
PARISH'S (Sib Woodbine) Buenos Ayres and the Provinces of the 

Rio de la Plata. Their First Discovery and Conquest, Present State, 
Trade, Debt, &c. Second Edition. Map and Woodcuts. 8vo. 15*. 

PARIS'S (T. C.) Letters from the Pyrenees during Three Months 
Pedestrian Wanderings amidst the Wildest Scenes o? the French and 
Spanish Pyrenees. Woodcuts. PostSvo. 10s. 6d. 

PARKYNS* (Mawswbld) Personal Narrative of Three Y<eawT Resi- 
dence and Adventures in Abyssinia. Woodcuts. 2 Vols. 8VO-. 30*. 

PATTISON'S (Rev. Mark) Lives of the Scatigers. 8vo. 

PEILE'S (Rev. Dr.) Agamemnon of JEschylus. A New Edition 
of the Text, with Motes, Critical, Explanatory, and Philological, for 
the Use of Students. Second Edition. 8vo. 9s. 

Choephoroe of JRschylus. A New Edition of the Text, 

with Notes, Critical, Explanatory, and Philological, for the Use of 
Students. Second Edition. 8vo. 9*. 

PELLEW'S (Dean of Norwich) Life of Lord Sidmouth, with 

his Correspondence. Portraits. 3 Vols. 8vo. 42s. 
PENN'S (Richam>) Maxims and Hints for an Angler, «nd the 
■ Miseries of Fishing. To which is added, Maxims and Hints fin- a 

Chess-player. Sew Edition. Woodcuts. Fcap.Svo. Is. 


PENX'S (Gwwvilie) Bioscope.; or, Dial Of life ^Explained. To 
which is added, ft TnuMtetton of fit. FauHnus' Spittle toOebantia, on 
the Rule of Christian Life ; and an Elementary View of General Chro- 
nology. 'Seamd^Editien: WithJKal Plate. 12mo. 19t. 

PENROSE'S (Rav. Jomr) Lives of Vice-Admiral Sir C. V. Penrose, 
and Captain James Trevenen. Portraits. 8ro. 10*. 6£. 

— Faith and Practice 7 an 'Exposition 4f the Principles 
and Duties of Natural and Revealed ^Religion. Post8vo. 8*/8rf. 

— (F. C.) Principles of Athenian Architecture, and the 
Optical Refinements exhibited in the Construction of the Ancient 
Buildings at Athens, 'from a Survey. With 40 Plate*. Folio. 52. 5s. 
(RMiehed under the direction of the Dilettanti Society.) 

PERRY'S (&& Esssins) BirdVEye View of India. With Extracts 
from a Journal kept in the Provinces, NepmoL<&e. Fcap. 8ve. 55. 

PHILLIPS' (John) Memoirs of William Smith, LL.D. (the Geo- 
logist). Portrait. 8vo. 7e.6d. 

Geology of Yorkshire, The Yorkshire 'Coast, and the 

Mountain-Limestone District Plates 4to. Part I.. 31».«6tf.— Part II., 
62*. W. . 

— The Rivers, Monntams, and Sea Coast of Yorkshire. 
With Essays on the Climate, S«enery,«iid.Aiicteiu; inhabitants of the 
Country. Second Edition, with 36 .Plates. Svo. 16a. 

• or, the Ftret Principles ofNatnral Philosophy inculcated by aid of the Toys 
and Sports of Youth. Eighth Edition. Revised and enlarged. Wood- 
cuts. Post 8vo. 

PHILPOTT'S (Bishop) Letters to the late Charles Butler, on the 
Theological parts of his "Book of the Roman Catholic Church ; " with 
Remarks on certain Wotfcs-ef Dr. If liner and Dr. Lingard, and on some 
parts ofthe Evidence of Dr. Doyle. Second Edition, Svo. 10*. 

PHHTS' (Hov. Edmujid) Memoir, Correspondence, Literary and 
Unpublished Diaries of Robert Btauoer Ward. Portrait. * Vote. 6vo. 28s. 

POOLE'S (R.-S.) H0T8B Egyptiacse : or, the Chronology of Ancient 
Egypt, discovered from Astronomical and Hieroglyphic Reeords upon 
its Monuments. Plates. 8vo. 10*. &Z. 

POPE'S (Alexander) WORKS. An entirety New Edition. Edited 
by the Right Hon. John Wilson Cbokee, assisted .by Psxss Cunning- 
oam, F.B.A. Bvo. In the frees. 

PORTER'S (G. R.) Progress of the Nation, in its various Social and 
Economical Relations, from the beginning of the Nineteenth Century 
TUird Edition. 8vo. 24*. 

(Rev. J. L.) Five Years in Damascus. With Travels to 

Palmyra, Lebanon, and other Script ur e Sites. Map and Woodcuts. 
2 vols. Post8vo. 21*. 

(Mrs. 6. R.) Rational Arithmetic for Schools and for 

Private Instruction. 12mo. 3s. 6d. 

POWELL'S (Ret. W. P.) Latin Grammar simplified. 12roo. 3*. 6d. 

PRAYER-BOOK (The), Illuminated with 1060 Illustrations of Bor- 
ders, Initiate, Vignettes, &c. Medium 8vo. Cloth, 21*.; Cal^-Sl*. &?. 
Morocco, 42e. 


maty, continued to the Present Time. With Map by Abhowsxith. 
Third Edition. 8vo. 6».6d. 

PUSS IN BOOTS. With 12 Illustrations; for Old and Young. 

By Otto Spbcktxb. A New Edition, 16mo. Is. 6d. 

QUARTERLY REVIEW (The). 8vo. 0*. 

KANKE'S (Lbobold) Political and Ecclesiastical History of the 
Ptfpes of Some, during the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Trans- 
lated from the German by Ms*. Austin. Third Edition 2 Vols. 8vo. 24*. 

RAWLINSON'S (Rev. George) Herodotus. A New English 
Version. Translated from the Text of Gaistobd, and Edited with 
Notes, illustrating the History and Geography of Herodotus, from the 
most recent sources of information, embodying the chief Results, 
Historical and Ethnographical, which have been arrived at in the pro- 
gress of Cuneiform and Hieroglyphical Discovery. Assisted by Colonel 
Rawlinbon and Sib J. G. Wilkinson. 4 Vols. 8vo. In Preparation. 

REJECTED ADDRESSES (The). By James ahd Horace Smith. 

With Biographies of the Authors, and additional Notes. New Edition, 
with the Author** latest Corrections. Portraits. Fcap. 8vo. 1»., or on 
Fine Paper. With Portrait and Woodcuts. Fcap.8vo. bs. 

RICARDO'S (David) Political Works. With a Notice of his 

Life and Writings. By J. R. M<Culloch. New Edition. 8vo. 16*. 

RIPA'S (Father) Memoirs during Thirteen Years' Residence at the 
Court of Peking, in the Service of the Emperor of China. Translated 
from the Italian. By Fobtunato Pbandi. Post8vo. 2s. 6d. 

ROBERTSON'S (Rev. J. C.) History of the Christian Church, to 
the Pontificate of Gregory the Great: a Manual for general Readers as 
well as for Students in Theology. 8vo. 12*. 

ROBINSON'S (Edwd., D.D.) Biblical Researches in the Holy Land. 

A New and Revised Edition. With Maps. 2 Vols. 8vo. In Preparation. 

Later Biblical Researches in the Holy Land in the 

year 1852. Maps. 8vo. In Preparation. 

ROMILLY'S (Sir Samuel) Memoirs and Political Diary. By his 
Sons. Third Edition. Portrait 2 Vols. Fcap.Svo. 12*. 

ROSS'S (Sir James) Voyage of Discovery and Research in the 
Southern and Antarctic Regions during the years 1839-43. Plates. 
2Vols.8vo. 865. 


Hates. Vols. I. to III. 8vo. 12s. each. 
RUNDELL'S (Mrs.) Domestic Cookery, founded on Principles 

of Economy and Practice, and adapted for Private Families. New and 

Revised Edition. Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. Be. 

RUXTON'S (George P.) Travels in Mexico; with Adventures 
among the Wild Tribes and Animals of the Prairies and Rocky Moun- 
tains. Post8vo. 68. 

SALE'S (Lady) Journal of the Disasters in Afghanistan. EiglUh 

Edition. Post8vo. 12s. 

(Sir Robert) Brigade in Afghanistan. With an Account of 

the Seiznre and Defence of Jellalabad. ByREV.G.R.GLEio. Post 8vo.2«.6d. 
SANDWITH'S (Humphry, M.D.) Narrative of the Siege of ;Kars 

and of the Six Months' Resistance by the Turkish Garrison under 
General Williams, to the Russian Army ; preceded by a Narrative of 
Travels and Adventures in Armenia. With Remarks on the Present 
State of Turkey. 3rd Thousand. Post8vo. 10s. 6d. 


SCROFE'S (William) Days of Deer-Stalking in the Forest of Atholl ; 
with some Account of the Nature and Habits of the Red Deer. Third 
Edition. Woodcuts. Crown 8vo. 20*. 

D a y g an< i Nights of Salmon Fishing in the Tweed ; 

with a short Account of the Natural History and Habits of the Salmon. 
Second Edition. Woodcuts. Royal 8vo. 31*. W. 

(G. P.) Memoir of Lord Sydenham, and his Administra- 

tion in Canada. Second Edition. Portrait. 8vo. 9*. to. 

Italian, and German. For the Daily Use of Young Persons. By A Lady. 
16mo. Ss.Qd. 

SEYMOUR'S (H. Dauby) Travels in the Crimea and along the 
Shores of the Sea of Azoff and the Black Sea. Third Edition. Map. 
8vo. 12*. 

SHAW'S (Thos. B.) Outlines of English Literature, for the Use of 
Young Students. Post 8vo. 12*. 

SIDMOUTH'S (Lord) Life and Correspondence. By the Hon. and 
Rbv. George Pbllew, Deak of Norwich. Portraits. 3Vols.8vo. 42*. 

SIERRA LEONE ; Described in a Series of Letters to Friends at 
Home. By A Lady. Edited by Mrs. Norton. Post 8vo. 6*. 

SMITH'S (Wm., LL.D.) Dictionary of Greek and Roman Anti- 

quities. Second Edition. With 600 Woodcuts. 8vo. 42*. 

Smaller Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. 

Third Edition. With 200 Woodcuts. Crown 8vo. 7*.6d. 

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and My- 
thology. With 500 Woodcuts. 8 Vols. 8vo. 61. 16*. W. 

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. Woodcuts. 

Vol.1. 8vo. 36*. 
— Historical Atlas of Ancient Geography. 4to. 
New Classical Dictionary for Schools. Compiled from 

the two last works. Third Edition. 8vo. 16*. 

Smaller Classical Dictionary. Third Edition. With 
200 Woodcuts. Crown 8vo. 7*.6J. 

— New Latin-English Dictionary. Based upon the Works 
of Forcellini and Freund. Medium Svo. 21*. 

— - Smaller Latin-English Dictionary. Square 8vo. 7*. 6d. 

School History of Greece ; from the Earliest Times to 

the Roman Conquest, with Supplementary Chapters on the History of 
Liter^ure and Art. Woodcuts. Seventh Edition, 12mo. 7s. 6d. 

School History of Rome; from the Earliest Times to 

the Establishment of the Empire. By H. 6. Liddkll, D.D., Dean 
of Christ Church. Woodcuts. 12mo. 

Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. 

■ Edited, with Notes. Portrait and Map. 8 Vols. 8vo. 60*. (Murray's 
British Classics.) 

(Wm. Jas.) Grenville Letters and Diaries, including 

Mr. Grkntille's Diaby of Political Evknts, while First Lord oi 
the Treasury. Edited, with Notes. 4 Vols. 8vo. 64*. 


SMITH'S (Jaxgs * Horacb) R*eoted Addresses. 2Srd Edition. 
Feap,8vp. l*.,priftMib|«r, WitbPortraitand Woodflnta* J?cap8vo. 6s. 

SOMERVILLE'S (Mart) Physical Geography. Third Edition. 
Portrait. 2 Vote. Fcap.8va. It*. 

Connexion of the Physical Sciences. Eighth 

Edition. Plates. Fcap.8vo. 10s. 6d. 

SOUTHEY'S (Robebt) Book of the Church ; with Rotes contain- 
ing the Authorities, and an Index. Sixth Edition. 8vo. 12». 

. Lives of John Buny an & Oliver Cromwell. Pbst8vo. 2*.6cT. 

SPECKTER'S (Otto) Puss in Boots, suited to. the Tastes of Old 

and young. A New Edition. With IS Woodcuts. Square Ifcno. 1*. 6* 

: '— Charmed Roe; or* tha Story of the Little. Brother 

and Sister. Illustrated. 16mo. 

STARLET'S (Bdwam>, DjD., Bp. of Norwich) Azwrbsbbs ato 
Charges. With a Memoir of his Life. By His Sox. Second Edition. 
8vo. lOc-ftf. 

(Abtoub P.) Commentary on St Pfcoi's Epistles to 

the Corinthians, with Notes and Dissertation* 2 VWs. 8ro. 2Jt. 

Historical Memoirs of Canterbury. The Landing of 
Augustine— The Murder of Beckei—The Black Prince— The- Shrine of 
Becket. Second Edition. Woodcuts. 8vo. 8#. 6rf. 

Sinai and Palestine, in Connexion with their History. 

.Map-. 8vo. 16*. 

ST. JOHN'S (Chablbs) Held Notes of a Sportsman and Naturalist 
in Sutherland. Woodtutl. 9 Vols. EostSvo. 18*. 

Wild Sports and Natural History of the Highlands. 

(Bayee) Adventures in the Libyan Desert and the 

Oasis of Jupiter Ammon. Woodcuts. Post8vo. 2». Qd. 

STISTED*S (Mrs. Hbnrt) Letters from the Bye-Ways of Italy. 
Plates. 8vo. 18s. 

STOTHARD'S (Thos., R. A.) Life. With Personal Reminiscences. 
By Mrs. Bbay. With Portrait and 00 Woodcut*. 4to. a*. 

STREET'S (G. E.) Brick and Marble Architecture of Italy, in the 
Middle Ages. Plates. 8*0. 21*. 

STRIFE FOR THE MASTERY. Two Allegories. With Illus- 
.' tratiens. . Grown 8vo. 6*. 

SUNLIGHT THROUGH THfi MIST; or, Practical Lessons 
drawn from the Lives of Good Men, intended as a Sunday Book for 
.Children. BjALady. Second Edition. IGaao. 3s.6d. m 

SUTTON (Hon, H. MUimwn), Some Account of the Courts of 
Loadoa and Vienna, at the end of the Seventeenth Century* extracted 
from the Official and Private Correspondence of Robert Sutton (late 
Lord Lexington) while British Minister ai Vienna, 16Mi96. 8vo. 14*. 

SWIFTS (Jobashab) Works. New Edition, based upon Sir 
Walter Scott's Edition, entirely revised. 8vo. InT 

SYDENHAM'S (Lobd) Memoirs, With his Administration in 
Cftmfe. ByO.W*»T,wrSx9*o*%Bf;F. BeemdTSditim. Portrait. 8Vp. 9».&f. 


TALBOT'S (H. Fox) English Etymologies. 8vo. 12*. 
TAYLOR'S (Henry) Notes frdm Life, in Six Essays. Post 8vo. 6s. ; 

or, Cheap Edition Fcap. 8vo. 2s. 

Notes from Books. 2%ird Edition. Post 8vo. 9*. 
(J. E.) Fairy Ring. A Collection of Stories ftr Young 

Persona. From the German. With Illustrations by Rxchabd Doyle. 
Second Edition. Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. Is. QtL 

TENNENTS (Sir J. E.) Christianity in Ceylon, Its Introduction 
and Progress under the Portuguese, Dutch; British, and American Mis- 
sions. With an Historical Sketch of the Brahmanioal.and Buddhist 
Superstitions. Woodcuts. 8vo. 14a. 

so as to save the trouble of turning Hie Pages backwards and forwards. 
Boy&lSvo. 2«. 

TICKNOR'S (George) History of Spanish Literature; With Criti- 
cisms on particular Works, and Biographical Notices of Prominent 
Writers. . Second Edition, 3 VoIb. 8vo. 24*. 

TREMENHEERE'S (H. S.) Political Experience of the Ancients, 

in its bearing on Modern Times. Fcap. 8vo. 2$. 6d. 
. Notes on Public Subjects, made during a 

Tour in the United States and Canada. Post 8vo. 10s. 6rf. 

Constitution of the United' States' compared 

with our own. Post 8vo. 9*. 6d. 

TURNBULL'S (P. E.) Narratire of Travel* in Anstria, with 
Remarks on its Social and Political Condition. 2 Vols. 8vo. 24*. 

TWISS' (Horace) Public and Private Life of Lord Chancellor Eldon, 
with Selections- from his Correspondence. Portrait. Third Edition 
2 Vols. PostSvo. 21*. 

UBIOINI'S (M. A.) Letters on Turkey and its Inhabitants— the 
Moslems, Greeks, Armenians, &c. 2 Yob). Post 8yo. 

VAUGHAN'S (Rev. Dr.) Sermons preached, in Harrow School. 

8vo. \0s.6d. 
- — Nine New Sermons. 12mo. 5a, 

VAUX'S (W. S. W.) Handbook to the Antiquities in the British 
Museum; being a Description of the Remains of Greek, Assyrian, 
Egyptian,, and Etruscan Art preserved, there. With 800 Woodeuta. 
Post8vo. 7s.6<L 

YENABLES' (Rev. R. L.) Domestic Scenes in Russia during a 
Year's Residence, chiefly in the Interior. Second Edition. Post 8vo. 

VOYAGE to the Mauritius and back, touching* at the Cape of Good 
Hope, and St. Helena. By Author of " Paddiawa." Post 8ro. 8*. 6d. 

WAAGEN'S (Dr.) Treasures of Art in Great Britain. Being an 
Account of the Chief Collections of Paintings, Sculpture, Manuscripts, 
Miniatures, &c. &c in this Country. Obtained from Personal Inspec- 
tion during Visits to England. 3 Vols. 8vo. 80*. 

WADDLNGTON'S (Deaf) The Condition and Prospects of the 

Greek Church. New Edition. Feap.'8*o. 8#. 6d. 

WAKEFIELD'S (E. J.) Adventure* in New* Zealand. With 
seme Aoooant of the Beginning of the British Colonisation of the 
Island. Map. 2 Vols. 8vo. 28*. 

WALKS AND TALKS. A Story-book for Young Children. By 
Aunt Ida. With Weodentt . 16mo. fit. 


WARD'S (Robert Plumer) Memoir, Correspondence, Literary and 
Unpublished Diaries and Remains. By the Hon. Edmund Puipps. 
Portrait. 2 Vols. 8vo. 28*. 

WATT (James) ; Origin and Progress of his Mechanical Inventions. 
Illustrated by his Correspondence with his Friends. Edited with an 
Introductory Memoir, by J. P. Muikiucaj>. Plates. S vols. 8vo., 45*. 
or Large Paper. 4to. 

WELLESLE Y'S (Rbv. Dr.) Anthologia Polyglotta ; a Selection 
of Versions in various Languages, chiefly from the Greek Anthology. 
8vo,15*.; or4to,42*. 

WELLINGTON'S (The Duke op) Character, Actions, and Writings. 

By Jules Maurel. Second Edition. 1». W. 
Despatches during his various Campaigns. 

Compiled from Official and other Authentic Documents. By Col. 

Guuwood, C.B. New Enlarged Edition. 8 Vols. 8vo. 21*. each. 

Selections from his Despatches and General 

Orders. 8vo. 18*. 

Speeches in Parliament. Collected and Arranged 

with his sanction. 2 Vols. 8vo. 42s. 
WILKIE'S (Sir David) life, Journals, Tours, and Critical Remarks 
on Works of Art, with a Selection from his Correspondence. By Allan 
Cunningham. Portrait 8 Vols. 8vo. 42*., 

WILKINSON'S (Sir J. G.) Popular Account of the Private Life, 
Manners, and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians. With 500 Wood- 
cuts. 2 Vols. Post8vo. 12*. 

Dalmatia and Montenegro; with a Journey to 

Mostar in Herteegovina, and Remarks on the Slavonic Nations. Plates 
and Woodcuts. 2Vols.8vo. 42*. 

Handbook for Egypt.— Thebes, the Nile, Alex- 
andria, Cairo, the Pyramids, Mount Sinai, Ac. Map. Post 8vo. 15*. 

(G.B.) Working Man's Handbook to South Aus- 
tralia ; with Advice to the Farmer, and Detailed Information for the 
several Classes of Labourers and Artisans. Map. 18mo. 1*. 6d. 

WOOD'S (Lieut.) Voyage np the Indus to the Source of the 
River Oxus, by Kabul and Badakhshan. Map. 8vo. 14*. 

WOODWARD'S (B.B.) Handbook of Chronology and History; 

Alphabetically Arranged to Facilitate Reference. 8vo. 
WORDSWORTH'S (Rev. Dr.) Athens and Attica. Journal of a 

Tour. Third Edition. Plates. Post8vo. 8s. Gd. 

Kin* Edward Vlth's Latin Grammar, for the 

Use of Schools. 10th Edition, revised. 12mo. S*.6ef. 

First Latin Book, or the Accidence, Syntax 
and Prosody, with English Translation for Junior Classes. Second 
Edition. 12mo. 2*. 

WORNUM (Ralph). A Biographical Dictionary of Italian Painters : 
with a Table of the Contemporary Schools of Italy. By a Lady. 
Post8vo. 6s. 6d. 

WORSAAE'S (J. J. A.) Account of the Danes and Northmen in 
England, Scotland, and Ireland. Woodcuts. 8vo. 10*. 6d. 

YOUNG'S (Dr. Thos.) Life and Miscellaneous Works, edited 
by Dean Peacock and John Leitch. Portrait and Plates. 4 Vols. 
8vo. 15>. each.